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Biology EOC Vocab

Biology EOC Review

The nucleic acid molecule that stores genetic information. DNA
The organelle that converts glucose into ATP (energy) for the cell to use mitochondria
The organelle that performs photosynthesis by converting sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen chloroplast
Selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells and acts as a barrier allowing some substances to enter and exit and others to not. cell membrane aka plasma membrane
hard rigid outer layer of plant and fungi cells cell wall
site of protein sysnthesis ribosome
energy molecule ATP
the fluid that surrounds the organelles inside of the cell cytoplasm
organelle that that houses the genetic information (DNA) in eukaryotic cells nucleus
organelle that stores water, waste, and nutrients - larger in plant cells than in animal cells vacuole
organelle that contains digestive enzymes and breaks down waste and old worn-out organelles lysosome
the movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration (with the concentration gradient) diffusion
the movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration through a specialized channel protein (with the concentration gradient) facilitated diffusion
the movement of molecules from low concentration to high concentration using energy (against the concentration gradient) active transport
a membrane that allows some things to pass through and others to not is referred to as semi-permeable
the movement of water from high concentration to low concentration osmosis
the pressure exerted by a large vacuole in plants turgor pressure
makes up the cell membrane phospholipid bilayer and proteins
a charged molecule ion
process in the cells that take place in the mitochondria and produces ATP cellular respiration
process in the cells that occurs by converting sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen photosynthesis
oxygen +glucose —> water+ carbon dioxide+ATP cellular respiration
carbon dioxide + water+ sunlight —> glucose + oxygen photosynthesis
monosaccharide that is produced during photosynthesis and is used to create ATP during cellular respiration glucose (C6H12O6)
pigment in plants and other photosynthetic organisms that trap sunlight chlorophyll
the process by which DNA is converted into mRNA transcription
the process by which mRNA is converted into and amino acid sequence (protein) translation
monomer of DNA and RNA, composed of a phosphate group, 5 carbon sugar, and nitrogenous base nucleotide
DNA and RNA are ___________ ___________ nucleic acids
the monomer or building blocks of proteins amino acids
amino acid sequences make up proteins
three nucleotides that code for a single amino acid on a mRNA strand (ex: AUG) codon
having two copies of each chromosome ( ex: human somatic cell has 46 chromosomes) diploid
having one copy of each chromosome ( ex: human gamete or sex cell has 23 chromosomes) haploid
during mitosis 2 ______________ daughter cells are produced diploid
during meiosis 4 ______________ daughter cells are produced haploid
tightly packed DNA that is condensed for cellular division chromosome
chromosomes are only visible during _____ _______ cell division
four haploid daughter cells are produced during meiosis
two identical daughter cells are produced during mitosis
haploid sperm or egg cells are called gametes
diploid body cells (ex: nerve, bone, blood) are called somatic cells
the process by which two haploid gametes combine to form a diploid cell fertilization
biotic and abiotic factors in one area makes up a(n) ecosystem
a group of organisms of the same species population
all the biotic factors in one area community
symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit mutualism
symbiotic relationship where one organism benefit and the other is neither helped nor harmed commensalism
symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits (parasite) at the expense of another (host) parasitism
an organism that can produce its own food autotroph
another name for autotroph producer
an organism that must consume other organisms to survive heterotroph
another name for heterotroph consumer
non-living factor in the environment abiotic
a living, or once living, factor in an environment biotic
a prediction for an experiment that is testable hypothesis
the group you keep unchanged to compare control
organisms that can mate with each other and produce fertile offspring species
the role a species plays in an ecosystem, including where it lives and what it eats niche
a model, using arrows, of all the possible interconnected consumer interactions in a community food web
interactions between organisms of two species, includes mutualism, and parasitism symbiosis
a model of 10% energy flow through consecutive trophic levels energy pyramid
an explanation for a broad problem, supported by extensive experimentation and evidence theory
the change in allele frequency of a population over time genetic variation
the process by which organisms that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce (mechanism for evolution) natural selection
a genetic variation (expressed as a trait) that is favored by selection in a particular environment adaptation
the number of different species in a particular area species diversity
1) the 2 alleles (ex: Ww) for a trait 2) the expression of a trait (ex: Widow's peak) 1)genotype and 2)phenotype
this change in DNA (nucleotide sequence) is the original source of variation mutation
ATCGACCAG—>ATTCGACCAG frameshift muatation (insertion)
ATCGACCAG—>ATCGACCG frameshift muatation (deletion)
an ancestral species shared by two or more species as evidenced by commonalities common ancestor
fossil records, anatomical homologies, DNA and protein similarities evidence of evolution
the difference in alleles or genes between organisms within the gene pool of a species genetic variation
CHO 1:2:1 monomer: monosaccharides function: short term energy and structure such as cell wall carbohydrate
CHO monomer: glycerol and fatty acids function: long term energy storage, compose cell membrane lipids
CHON monomer:amino acids acts as catalyst and building blocks of the body (ex: muscles) proteins
CHONP monomer: nucleotides function: stores and expresses genetic information nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)
(archaea and bacteria) a group of unicellular organisms that lack membrane -bound organelles (no nucleus, etc) prokaryote
(animals, plans, fungi, etc.) organisms with complex cells and membrane-bound organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, etc.) eukaryote
cells in multicellular organisms develop to have separate tasks/functions (muscle cells, red blood cells, etc.) cell specialization/cell differentiation
proteins that increase the rate of a reaction by lowering the energy activation enzyme
lock and key model in order to react, the substrate (reactant) must fit into the active site of the enzyme
the steps of cellular respiration glycolysis, krebs cycle (citric acid cycle), electron transport chain
anaerobic respiration that produces alcohol or lactic acid and 2 ATP fermentation
the process of producing two identical copies of one original DNA molecule DNA replication
one of two or more forms of a gene allele
WW, XX homozygous dominant alleles
tt, yy homozygous recessive alleles
Tt, Ww, XY heterozygous alleles
male and female sex chromosomes XY and XX
a section of DNA in a chromosome that codes for a protein (or polypeptide) gene
double sided helix made of nucleotides containing a deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin contributed DNA structure
Chargaff's Rule DNA : adenine =thymine, guanine =cytosine A=T C=G
base pair rule DNA: A=T, C=G RNA: A=U, C=G
double sided, has the sugar deoxyribose and has the base thymine DNA
single sided, has the sugar ribose and the base uracil RNA
moves molecules, including proteins, from one part of the cell to another endoplasmic reticulum
endoplasmic reticulum that is covered in ribosomes rough ER
the movement of materials across the cell membrane without using energy (ATP) passive transport
the process in which a cell completely surrounds a substance to move large bulky into the cell (phagocytosis) endocytosis
the process in which a cell releases large bulky materials out of the cell exocytosis
single unit; building block of polymer; subunit monomer
made up of smaller subunits; composed of monomers polymer
the tendency to maintain a stable, relatively constant internal environment homeostasis
inerphase, mitosis, cytokenesis cell cycle
G1, S , G2 interphase
part of the cell cycle when DNA is replicated S phase (interphase)
division of the cytoplasm; cleavage furrow forms in animal cells; cell plate form in plant cells cytokinesis
uncontrolled cell division; creates tumors that interfere with normal cell function cancer
a non-living infectious agent that is composed of a protein coat (capsid) and nucleic acid (RNA or DNA); relies on a host cell to multiply virus
viral reproduction cycle that ends in the lysis of the infected cell releasing the viruses that will in turn spread and infect other cells. lytic cycle
viral reproduction cycle that does not lyse the host cell right away, the virus replicates as the host cell replicates. The virus can remain dormant for years. lysogenic cycle
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase mitosis
tissue that carries food from the leaves to other parts of the plant phloem
tissue that carries water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves of the plant xylem
tiny openings in the upper and lower epidermis of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide to enter and oxygen and water to leave stomata
middle layer of leaf tissue in which photosynthesis occurs mesophyll
a plant that is characterized by the presence of transport tissue vascular plant
the male reproductive organs in a flower; filament, anther stamen
the female reproductive organs of a flower; stigma, style, ovary, ovule pistil
the relaxed form of DNA in the cell's nucleus chromatin
the first phase of mitosis in which chromosomes become visible and nuclear membrane disappears prophase
a phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell metaphase
phase of mitosis in which sister chromatids are pulled to opposite sides of the cell anaphase
the final stage of mitosis during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes telophase
branch of science concerned with classification of organisms taxonomy
named group of organisms such as phylum, genus, or species taxon taxa (plural)
taxonomic ranks domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species mnemonic to remember: dumb kids playing cards on freeways get smashed
used to prevent viral infections vaccines
used to treat bacterial infections antibiotics
amount of energy passed on from one trophic level to the next 10%
binomial nomenclature is a scientific name composed of an organism's _________ and ________ genus and species Ex: human= Homo sapian