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Biology Chapt 17

Biology chapter 17

macroevolution Large-scale evolutionary change, such as the formation of new species.
speciation Origin of new species due to the evolutionary process of descent with modification.
morphology Physical characteristics that contribute to the appearance of an organism.
morphological species concept Definition of a species that defines species by specific diagnostic traits.
diagnostic traits Characteristics that distinguish species from one another.
evolutionary species concept Every species has its own evolutionary history, which is partly documented in the fossil record.
phylogenetic species concept Definition of a species that is determined by analysis of a phylogenetic tree to determine a common ancestor.
biological species concept The concept that defines species as groups of populations that have the potential to interbreed and that are reproductively isolated from other groups.
reproductive isolation Model by which new species arise when gene flow is disrupted between two populations, genetic changes accumulate, and the populations are subsequently unable to mate and produce viable offspring.
prezygotic isolating mechanism Anatomical, physiological, or behavioral difference between two species that prevents the possibility of mating.
Habitat Isolation Species occupy different habitats.
Temporal Isolation Each reproduces at a different time.
Behavioral Isolation Courtship patterns for recognizing mates differ.
Mechanical Isolation Incompatible animal genitalia or plant floral structures.
Gamete Isolation Gametes that meet do not fuse to become a zygote.
postzygotic isolating mechanism Anatomical or physiological difference between two species that prevents successful reproduction after mating has taken place.
Hybrid Inviability Hybrid zygote is not viable and dies.
Hybrid Sterility Hybrid zygote develops into a sterile adult. Example Mule cross between female horse and male donkey.
speciation Origin of new species due to the evolutionary process of descent with modification.
allopatric speciation Model that proposes that new species arise due to an interruption of gene flow between populations that are separated geographically.
sympatric speciation Origin of new species in populations that overlap geographically.
polyploidy Having a chromosome number that is a multiple greater than twice that of the monoploid number.
autoploidy Polyploid organism with multiple chromosome sets all from the same species.
alloploidy Polyploid organism that contains the genomes of two or more different species.
adaptive radiation Rapid evolution of several species from a common ancestor into new ecological or geographical zones.
ecological release In an ecosystem, the freedom of a species to expand its use of available resources due to an elimination of competition.
convergent evolution Similarity in structure in distantly related groups generally due to similiar selective pressures in like environments.
analogous, analogous structure Structure that has a similar function in separate lineages but differs in anatomy and ancestry.
homologous, homologous structure A structure that is similar in different types of organisms because these organisms descended from a common ancestor.
Created by: Haleyannestes