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Bio Regents 2018 Voc

Biology Regents 2018 Vocabulary

respiration the process of forming ATP within cells,
autotroph plants (producers) that make their own food (glucose) through photosynthesis
biodiversity the presence of many different species with different niches (roles) in the environment, helps ensure survival
fertilization the process of fusing of a sperm cell and egg cell to form a zygote (diploid cell)
variability genetic changes in a species that provides an increased chance for survival; natural selection and survival of the fittest from mutations, modification and recombination of genes during meiosis.
mutation changes in the DNA sequences (radiation or exposure to harmful chemicals causes cancer)
cloning reproducing organisms that are genetically identical to a parent
meiosis the process of producing haploid cells to reproduce, males produce sperm cells and females produce egg cells
mitosis produces two genetically identical cells to a parent cell during asexual reproduction (ameobas).
asexual reproduction the process by which a single parent reproduces by itself and the offspring is genetically identical to its parent (ameba, yeast, bacteria= clones)
genetic recombination the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
testosterone the hormone that stimulates sperm production and formation of sex characteristics in males
placenta organ in mammals through which nutrients, O, CO2, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother
genetic engineering the process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms.
ecological succession gradual change in living communities that follow a disturbance..fire burns down a field with animals and they eventually all return
diffusion process by which molecules tend to move from an area that is more concentrated to less concentrated
active transport energy requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
receptor molecules used by cells to receive messages, they are specific to the messages
DNA replication making an identical copy of a cell's DNA by unzipping and coding with matching bases A-T G-C
consumers organisms that eat other organisms to obtain the food they require; energy is transferred from one to the other in the food web
hypothesis a statement made prior to experimentation regarding results that are expected.
homeostasis an ideal, stable set of conditions within an organism.
spermatogenesis males ability to produce 4 haploid sperm cells
oogenesis woman's ability to produce 1 haploid egg
finite resources cannot be restored in short periods of time (water, coal, and oil), depletion is caused by human population.
independent variable the number/information known before the experiment (time or minutes)
dependent variable what is measured in the experiment, such as mL of oxygen gas produced.
energy pyramid a diagram that represents the amount of energy held by different categories of organisms in the environment. Energy is lost at each level.
selective breeding called artificial selection, creates unique breeds of farm plants or animals over many generations.
DNA mutations may be passed on to the next generation if they are located in the cells that produce gametes, lead to genetic variation, most harmful, some enhance survival of offspring
antibodies Y shaped proteins produced by white blood cells in the body that attach to invading pathogens and clump them together.
pathogens disease causing agent such as bacteria, viruses and toxins, white blood cells fight them off during an immune response.
cancer involves body cells dividing uncontrollably by mitosis.
abiotic factor non living things in the environment (air, water, soil, sunlight, PH, and temperature)
biotic factor are living organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria in an environment.
gel electrophoresis technique used to separate fragments of cut DNA according to size, makes a banning pattern for paternity cases, criminal evidence and evolutionary studies.
chromatography procedure used to produce chlorophyll and leaf cell patterns for identification.
niche a species role in the environment.
starch molecule an amino acid that bonds together to form a complex molecule
substitution frameshift of codons that code for a different amino acid, changes proteins produced (Sickle Cell Anemia)