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Chapter 9 & 10

Evolution Change over time; modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Fixed species Species stay the same and can't change for all time
Transmutation Where species can change
Who is Charles Darwin? A naturalist and biologist known for his theory of evolution and the process of natural selection
What is a fossil? A preserved remains of organisms and is petrified into rock
What is taxonomy? The science of classifying organisms
What does survival of the fittest mean? -competition meant that only the fittest would survive -An explanation of natural selection
Who was William Smith and what did he do? William was a geologist who studies rocks and fossils
Taxon The range from kingdom to the species
How do fossils form? Hard parts, such as bone, remain long enough to mineralize and form fossils
Mutation -Occurs when there is a copying error -Are rare -Have damaging effects
What is at the very beginning of the tree of life? The common ancestor of all living things
Can mutations be passed onto offspring? Mutations can only be passed on if the mutation is in a sex cell
What causes variation within the population? Mutations and sexual reproduction
Microevolution Evolutionary change within a species or small group of organisms over a short period of time and no speciation
Macroevolution Major evolutionary change over a long period of time and includes speciation
Speciation The formation of new and distinct species in the course of evolution
Embryological -Similar embryology also suggests similar genes -Embryonic cells develop in similar patterns
Homologous Structures Similar anatomical structures, that may have different functions
Analogous Structures Different anatomical structures, that have the same function. Ex) fin, wing, and arm
Vestigial Structures Structures that are no longer needed, so they are just set aside
Transitional Fossils Show a clear transition from one species to another
Geography Shows the group evolved before the continents drifted apart and the spread of organisms
Antibiotic Resistance When bacteria change in a way that reduces the effectiveness of drugs
What causes evolution? Natural selection
Double-helix Shows how genetic information is transferred
Variants Known as alleles
What is the theory of evolution? Deals with how evolution happens. Our understanding is always changing.
Do you have to change in order to survive? Yes
Created by: kieren1