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Unit 5 Vocab

RNA/DNA

TermDefinition
Protein Synthesis Formation of mRNA from DNA(transcription)and the conversion by tRNA to protein(translation).
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid; Double stranded molecule that stays inside of the nucleus at all times and is used to create proteins.
RNA Ribonucleic Acid; Single stranded molecule that transmits information from DNA to make proteins.
Nucleotide Basic unit of DNA and RNA; consists of a 5-carbon sugar, nitrogen bases, and a phosphate group.
DNA Nucleotide Deoxyribose Sugar, Bases GCAT, and Phosphate Group.
RNA Nucleotide Ribose Sugar, Bases GCAU, and Phosphate Group.
DNA Nitrogen Bases Guanine(G), Cytosine(C), Adenine(A), Thymine(T).
RNA Nitrogen Bases Guanine(G), Cytosine(C), Adenine(A), Uracil(U).
Hydrogen Bond Holds nitrogen bases together in DNA.
Covalent Bond Holds sugars and phosphates and sugars and bases together.
DNA Replication Process of copying DNA; occurs during interphase in mitosis and meiosis.
mRNA Messenger RNA; carries message for making proteins from the Nucleus to the Ribosome.
tRNA Transfer RNA; brings amino acids to the ribosome for assembly into a protein.
Transcription Creation of mRNA from DNA strand. (INSIDE NUCLEUS).
Translation Conversion of mRNA into protein using tRNA. (OCCURS IN RIBOSOMES)
Codon Set of three nucleotides that code for specific amino acid.
Gene Regulation Process where proteins are differentiated by the specific sequence of amino acids.
Hybridization Combining different varieties of organisms; Hybrid (Mixture).
Mutation Changes in genetic material.
Restrictive Enzymes Used to cut DNA
Vectors Methods for transferring foreign DNA into a host cell. Plasmids (Bacterical Cells) are a common type of vector.
Transgenic Organisms Genetically modified organisms. Created by inserting forgein DNA into organisms.
Gel Electrophoresis Also known as DNA fingerprinting; allows scientists to identity someone's DNA.
Stem Cells Cells that are have no specialized function, which can be developed into a whole variety of cells by activating specific genes on the cells DNA.
Gene Therapy Process through which specific gene sequences are inserted into an individual's cells to replace a defective or mutant allele.
Human Genome Project Project that help identify the approximately 20,000 to 25,000 genes in human DNA.
Created by: 00025680
 

 



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