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2nd semester vocab

ninja vocabulary 2nd semester 2018

QuestionAnswer
various forms that a single gene may have for a particular trait (a simple example is a dominant form and a recessive form) allele
individual that is heterozygous and does not show symptoms of a genetic disorder ( generally recessive disorders) but can possibly pass it on to their offspring carrier
genetic material with the coded information to form proteins.. it is found in all cells ... in eukaryotes it is forms structures called chromosomes in the nucleus DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid )
The allele that is normally expressed in an organ ism's phenotype when present ( in codominance or incomplete dominance it may not be expressed) dominant
process where gametes ( sex cells) combine to form a zygote ( new individual)..happens in sexual reproduction and is one way to provide variation because random egg and sperm can combine fertilization
a sex cell (haploid) formed during meiosis that combines with another sex cell ( also haploid) and produces a diploid zygote ( first cell of new organism)... example egg and sperm gamete
small section of DNA ( on a chromosome) that controls production of a specific protein to create a trait in an individual... ... these are on chromosomes and get passed on from generation to generation gene
an organism's allele pairs represented by two letters per trait... such as ,Aa, , AA, aa, or AABB, AaBb, aabb, ( a few examples for one and two traits represented by A's and B's) genotype
organisms that have two different alleles for a specific trait... ( example using A's ---- Aa heterozygous
paired chromosomes in body cells ( one from each parent), they have genes at the same location but possibly different alleles (AA, aa, Aa).. also are similar in length and centromere location homologous chromosomes
organism with two of the same alleles for a specific trait ( AA or aa) homozygous
a type of cell division that is called reduction division and reduces the chromosome number to half the original number... it occurs only in reproductive organs to make gametes ( sex cells) that are NOT genetically identical (can produce variation) meiosis
permanent change in the nitrogen base sequences in a cell's DNA that causes variations in genes that could be a factor in evolution mutation
observable characteristic that is expressed as a result of the allele pair... it can also be influenced by the environment phenotype
An allele that is only expressed in an organism's phenotype if the individual is homozygous (aa) and is masked when the individual is heterozygous ( Aa)... it will not show up in this situation recessive
a mechanism for evolution .. Darwin is famous for this idea that states only organisms best adapted to the environment tend to survive and transmit their genetic trais in increasing numbers to succeeding generations.. less adapted tend to be eliminated natural selection
descent with modification.. on a small scale the change in the genetic composition of a POPULATION over successive generations...on a large scale descent of different species from a common ancestors over many generations evolution
branch of biology dealing with description , identification, naming and classification of organisms...use hierarchical groups such as domain and kingdom taxonomy
how species are named using two terms . the first name indicates the genus and the second the species...usually in latinized form, developed by Linnaeus binomial nomenclature
a group of similar organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. this ithe the biological concept..evolutionary history is also important in this category of organisms... important part of scientific name species
the largest taxonomic grouping of organism.. very general characteristics such as cell type... and contains one or more kingdoms domains
a kindgom of eukaryotic organisms .. that are multicellular, heterotrophs with no cell walls.. most are motile but some lack this as adults animalia ( animals)
a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms... that are multicellular, autotrophs called photoautotrophs(photosynthesis) .. and have cell walls with cellulose plantae ( plants)
a kingdom of eukaryotic organisms... that are unicellular or multicellular , heterotrophs that secrete digestive enzymes into food source and absorb digested materials directly into their cells. cell walls are made of chitin fungi( fungus)
a domain and kingdom of prokaryotes ...name means Ancient, similar to first life forms on earth... more closely related to eukaryotes than other prokaryotes.. few areautotrophs , most heterotrophs, called extremophiles , can live in extreme environments Archaea
One of the 3 domains of organism. Cells have membrane bound nucleus and other membrane bound organelles... includes the kingdoms animal, plant, fungi, and protist Eukarya
One of the domains and kingdoms of prokaryotes.. vary greatly in habitats and methods of obtaining nourisment , aerobic or anaerobic... not extremophiles, more abundant that any other organisms... cyano..., E.coli, nitrogen fixing.... Bacteria
A kingdom on eukaryotes, uni or multicellular, may have cell walls of cellulose ... autotrophs or heterotrophs, in three broad groups...animal-like(protozoans), plant-like9algae) , and fungi-like Protista
any trait or characteristic that better's an individual organisms' chances at survival, reproduction and / or gaining resources... ( a physical structure, behavior or physiological function that results from natural selection adaptation
A scientist best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.. he described natural selection and establishment of the idea that all species descended over time from a common ancestor ( he wasn't first to think about this idea ) Darwin
A scientist known as the founder of genetics. He used pea plants and did experimental crossing counting offspring and recording the ratios that resulted. Established the basic rules of heredity Mendel
plant-like protists ... they are photoautotrophs ( make own food doing photosynthesis)... unicellular or multicellular. Not plants because don't have roots or leaves... examples are large such as kelp or small such as Diatoms Algae
Could be blood vessels in animals OR plant vessels ( the Xylem and Phloem) that transport water, and Nutrients in ferns and their relatives, gymnosperms, and angiosperms... gave support to land plants in addition to helping with transport vascular tissue
Vascular tissue in plants that is involved in transporting water and minerals upward from the roots ... xylem
Vascular tissue in plants that is involved in transporting organic food materials ( like sugar) from the photosynthetic parts of the plant to the rest of the plant ( directions other than upward) phloem---(flowum....food)
The transfer of pollen( contains sperm) to female reproductive organ of flower( pistil--made of stigma, style, ovary).. from the male organ in the flower ( stamen).. two types are self or cross.... happens prior to fertilization in a flowering plant pollination
a type of reproduction that involves the fusion of gametes ( fertilization) this potentially develops into offspring that are genetically different from the parent organisms sexual reproduction
a type of reproduction by which identical offspring develop from one organism without the union of gametes( a-without sexual)..happens in prokaryotes and some eukaryotes ( in absence of mate)..words associated with this binary fission, budding, etc asexual reproduction
... words associated with this process are binary fission, budding, vegetative propagation, spore formation, fragmentation, and partenogenesis asexual reproduction
portion of earth that supports life ( thin layer around earth extends into atmosphere, and extends below the ocean's surface into deep ocean vents. Includes, landmasses, fresh and salt bodies of water, and areas below surface that support life (fragile) biosphere
something resulting from activities of organisms or the living elements of the environment themselves.. in a quail's environment this includes the quail's prey like insects, seeds, and its predators like coyotes biotic factors
something in an environment that is non-living such as the light, temperature, wind, or rocks... many more abiotic factors
the science that studies interactions of living organisms with each other and with their environment ecology
a level of organization used by ecologists... a group of organisms of the same species that interbreed and occupy the same geographic place at the same time ( all the leapard frogs in Holmes lake) population
a level of organization used by ecologists ... a group of INTERACTING populations that live in the same geographic area at the same time community
organism that captures energy from sunlight or inorganic substances to produce its own food: provides the foundation of the food supply for other organisms( major examples are green plants, algae, and certain bacteria) autotroph
organisms that cannot make its own food and gets nutrients and energy requirements by feeding on other organisms ( various types are herbivores, carnivores,omnivores, detritivores, scavengers, decomposers) heterotroph
model that shows many interconnected food chains which show the feeding relationships of organisms in a community food web
important process in which nitrogen gas ( atmospheric) is captured and converted into a form plants can use as a nitrogen source ( can happen abiotically or biotically (bacteria do this) nitrogen fixation
this refers to the cycling of matter through LIVING ORGANISMS, CHEMICAL PROCESSES, AND GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES. this term refers to water cycle, nitrogen cycle, and carbon-oxygen cycle biogeochemical
environmental conditions ( living or nonliving) that restrict the growth, abundance, or distribution of an organism or a population... examples are temperatures that make optimal zones and zones of stress or intolerance for organisms.. limiting factors
examples of these could be weather events( drought, flooding, tornadoes), fires , human alternations of landscape, predators, disease, parasites, competition.. limiting factors
upper layer of a body of water defined by the depth to which enough sunlight can penetrate to permit photosynthesis photic zone
maximum population size of a species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given food, habitat, water and other necessities are available in the environment carrying capacity
VARIABLILITY AMONG ORGANISMS which includes variation within a species ( genetic) and a wide range of different types of organisms in a given area and various ecosystems ( a very desirable characteristic of an ecosystem) biodiversity
APPROXIMATE BALANCE IN AN ORGANISM... looking at balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes withing the body of the organism... three types are a-, radial, and bilateral symmetry
hard or tough outer covering of many invertebrates that provides support, protects body tissues, prevents water loss, and protects organism from predation exoskeleton
middle body region of an arthropod consisting of three fused body segments that may bear legs and wings thorax
posterior body region of an arthropod consisting of fused segments, it contains digestive structures, reproductive organs, and bears additional legs abdomen
in insects, series of changes from a larval form to an adult form ( example of development)... also occurs in amphibians as they change from living mostly in water to living mostly on land ( remember they must return to water for reproduction) metamorphosis
internal skeleton that protects internal organs, provides support for the organism's body, and can provide an internal brace for muscles to pull against endoskeleton
a phylum in the animal kingdom that have these features at some point in their life : dorsal nerve cord, notochord, gill slits, postanal tail...includes all vertebrates, hagfishes, and some invertebrates (tunicates and lancelets) chordate
animal that cannot regulate its body temperature through its metabolism and obtains its body heat from the external environment ectotherm ( old term coldblooded)
thin sac filled with a watery fluid in which the embryo or fetus of a reptile, bird, or mammal is suspended during prenatal development for protection.. an important development for successfully living on land.. may have leathery or calcium-based shell amnion ( amniotic egg)
an organism that generates its body heat internally by its own metabolism ( maintains a constant body temperature) endotherm
order of mammal that has an internal organ formed from mother and embryo tissues that nourishes and removes wastes for the developing fetus ...they give birth to young that need no further development in a pouch... placental mammal
most primitive order of mammals characterized by some bird-like or reptile- like features such as atching young from eggs.. examples are duckbill platypus and echidnas of Australia and New Guinea monotremes
order of mammals that have pouches. Their offspring have a short period of development inside of a uterus, After their birth they have a period of longer development within the pouch that also has the mammary glands marsupials
without... an/ a/ non anaerobic, asexual, abiotic
two bi/di/diplo bipolar, disaccharide, diploid
remove de deoxyribonucleic acid , decapitate
within or inside endo/ intra/ en endotherm, endoplasmic reticulum, intracellular
upon/on epi epidermis, epicenter
outer/outside ex/ecto/ exo ectotherm, exoskeleton
single hapl(o)/mono/uni haploid, monosaccharide, unicellular
different heter(o) heterozygous
the same homo/homeo homozygous, homeogeneous
light photo/phot photic zone, photosynthesis, photoautotroph
before pro prokaryote ,
Created by: shemehl