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Module 13 Vocab

Apologia Marine Biology

epipelagic zone The area of the water column that extends from the surface down to about 200 m (650 ft)
pelagic zone division of the ocean that represents all the water in the ocean with the exception of a thin layer on the bottom floor
photic zone a layer of the ocean's surface into which light can penetrate to allow for photosynthesis
neritic zone epipelagic water lying over the continental shelf
oceanic zone epipelagic water lying over the all of the ocean except for the continental shelf
phytoplankton organisms that are so powerfully productive that they can make food for themselves, organisms in their community, and other communities too
micrometer one-millionth of a meter
holoplankton species of zooplankton that spend their entire lives as plankton
meroplankton species of zooplankton that spend only part of their lives as members of the plankton community
nekton marine organisms that swim strongly enough to move against the ocean current
planktivorous marine organisms that feed only on zooplankton
drag waters tendency to resist the motion of objects
buoyancy a flotation strategy to help nektonic organisms stay afloat
neuston planktonic organisms living at the sea surface
countershading a method of camouflage in which an organism's coloration is darker on the upper side and lighter on the underside of the body
myoglobin a protein that provides more oxygen availability and gives the inside layer of muscle a darker color
vertical migration daily movement of small marine animals between the photic zone and lower depths
dissolved organic matter (DOM) organic material dissolved in ocean water
microbial loop the flow of energy in the epipelagic beginning with the phytoplankton, dissolved organic matter, and the smallest zooplankton, making energy available to the major food web
thermocline a thin but distinct layer in a large body of water in which temperature changes more rapidly with depth than it does in the layers above or below
overturn the process where cool winter temperatures cause the water of the surface layer to become colder & denser. this causes the water to sink & displaces the water in the deep layer, causing it to move upward.
upwelling the process that carries colder, nutrient-rich water upward to a more shallow depth
Southern Oscillation barometric pressure changes between the Pacific Ocean & Indian Ocean
El Nino a change in the surface currents on the Peruvian and Chilean coasts of South America resulting in coastal upwelling, bringing large quantities of nutrients up into the epipelagic zone