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Biology chapt 14

Biology Chapter 14

TermDefinition
cloning Production of identical copies. In organisms, the production of organisms with the same genes; in genetic engineering, the production of many identical copies of a gene.
gene cloning DNA cloning to produce many identical copies of the same gene.
gene therapy Correction of a detrimental mutation by the insertion of DNA sequences into the genome of a cell.
transgenic organism An organism whose genome has been altered by the insertion of genes from another species.
recombinant DNA (rDNA) DNA that contains genes from more than one source.
vector n genetic engineering, a means to transfer foreign genetic material into a cell—e.g., a plasmid.
plasmid Extrachromosomal ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes.
restriction enzyme Bacterial enzyme that stops viral reproduction by cleaving viral DNA; used to cut DNA at specific points during production of recombinant DNA.
DNA ligase Enzyme that links DNA fragments; used during production of recombinant DNA to join foreign DNA to vector DNA.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Technique that uses the enzyme DNA polymerase to produce millions of copies of a particular piece of DNA.
gel electrophoresis Process that separates molecules, such as proteins and DNA, based on their size and electrical charge by passing them through a matrix.
DNA fingerprinting also called DNA profiling Is a technology that can identify and distinguish amoung indiciduals based on variations in their DNA.
short tandem repeat (STR) sequence Procedure of analyzing DNA in which PCR and gel electrophoresis are used to create a banding pattern; these are usually unique for each individual; process used in DNA barcoding.
genetically modified organism (GMO) Organism whose genetic material has been altered or enhanced using DNA technology.
biotechnology products Commercial or agricultural products that are made with or derived from transgenic organisms.
gene pharming Production of pharmaceuticals using transgenic organisms, usually agricultural animals.
gene therapy Correction of a detrimental mutation by the insertion of DNA sequences into the genome of a cell.
ex vivo gene therapy Gene therapy in which cells are removed from an organism, and DNA is injected to correct a genetic defect; the cells are returned to the organism to treat a disease or disorder.
in vivo gene therapy A process that takes place inside of a living oganism.
genomics Area of study that examines the genome of a species or group of species.
human Genome Project (HGP) Initiative to determine the complete sequence of the human genome and to analyze this information.
structural genomics Study of the sequence of DNA bases and the amount of genes in organisms.
intergenic sequence Region of DNA that lies between genes on a chromosome.
repetitive DNA element Sequence of DNA on a chromosome that is repeated several times.
tandem repeat Repetitive DNA sequence in which the repeats occur one after another in the same region of a chromosome.
interspersed repeat Repeated DNA sequence that is spread across several regions of a chromosome or across multiple chromosomes.
functional genomics Study of gene function at the genome level. It involves the study of many genes simultaneously and the use of DNA microarrays.
DNA microarray Glass or plastic slide containing thousands of single-stranded DNA fragments arranged in an array (grid); used to detect and measure gene expression; also called gene chips.
comparative genomics Study of genomes through the direct comparison of their genes and DNA sequences from multiple species.
proteome Sum of the expressed proteins in a cell.
proteomics Study of the complete collection of proteins that a cell or organism expresses.
bioinformatics Area of scientific study that utilizes computer technologies to analyze large sets of data, typically in the study of genomics and proteomics.
homologous gene Gene that codes for the same protein, even if the base sequence may be different.
Created by: Haleyannestes