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Radiation Basics

Dental Radiography -- Principles and Techniques

TermDefinition
Radiation emission and propagation of energy through space or a substance in the form of waves
Radiograph 2D representation of a 3D object
Dental Radiograph photographic image produced on image receptor through teeth and related structures
X-Radiation high-energy ionizing electromagnetic radiation
X-ray weightless bundle of energy w/o an electrical charge that travel in waves
Radioactivity process where certain unstable atoms undergo spontaneous decay to become more balanced
Beta Particles fast moving electrons emitted nucleus
Cathode Ray stream of high speed electrons that originate in x-ray tube
Alpha Particles emitted from nuclei of heavy metals
Aluminum Disks sheets placed in path of xray beam to filter out the non-penetrating, longer wavelength xrays
Lead Collimator lead plate w a central hole that fits over the opening of the metal housing to restrict size of xray beam
Cathode negative electrode consists of tungsten wire filament
Anode positive electrode consists of wafer-thin tungsten plate
Amperage measurement of number of electrons moving through conductor
Voltage measurement of electrical force that causes electrons to move from a negative pole to a positive pole
Kilovoltage maximum or peak voltage
Density overall darkness or blackness of an image increase KvP = darker image
Contrast how sharply dark and light areas are differentiated on an image high contrast = many black/white areas, few grey
Milliamperage controls the penetrating power of xray beam by controlling number of electrons produced
Inverse Square Law when source-receptor distance is increased, the intensity of the beam is decreased **source-receptor distance is dbl'd, intensity of radiation is 1/4 intense**
Stochastic Effect direct function of dose severity of effects does not depend on magnitude of absorbed dose
Nonstochastic Effect somatic effects that have a threshold and increase in severity w increasing absorbed dose
Roentgen (R) measuring radiation exposure by determining the amount of ionization in the air
Created by: summerbradley