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SCI 7 Unit 3


Cell Division The process by which one cell replicates their genetic material and then divides into one or more cells
DNA Two strands of molecules that join together as a twisted ladder that contains all genetic material
Chromosome Compacted DNA molecules; looks like an “X”
Mitosis The division of the nucleus to form two identical cells.
Cancer Abnormal Division of cells producing a clump of cells called a tumor.
Asexual Reproduction One parent produces one or more identical offspring
Sexual Reproduction Involves two parents and produces one or more new organisms that have a mix of genetic material from both parents
Meiosis Cell division that produces sex cells that have only half the number of chromosomes
Sperm A sex cell, contains half the chromosomes of the male.
Egg A sex cell, contains half the chromosomes of the female.
Heredity The passing of physical or mental characteristics from one generation to the next.
Pedigree A chart that shows the family history of an individual
Gregor Mendel Mid-nineteenth century monk who is credited as the father of genetics.
Purebred An organism of many generations that have the same form of a trait.
Trait Physical characteristics of an organism that are influence by DNA.
Gene A unit of heredity that occupies a specific location on a chromosome.
Allele A variation in a gene
Dominant Alle The variation in a gene whose trait always shows up when the allele is present.
Recessive Allele The hidden trait whenever a dominant variation is present.
Punnet Square A chart that shows all the possible ways alleles can combine in a genetic cross.
Genotype A specific allele combination
Phenotype The physical trait expressed by the alleles
Mutation A random change in DNA, can be good, bad, or neutral.
Created by: krussoscience