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SCI 7 Unit 3

Genetics

TermDefinition
Cell Division The process by which one cell replicates their genetic material and then divides into one or more cells
DNA Two strands of molecules that join together as a twisted ladder that contains all genetic material
Chromosome Compacted DNA molecules; looks like an “X”
Mitosis The division of the nucleus to form two identical cells.
Cancer Abnormal Division of cells producing a clump of cells called a tumor.
Asexual Reproduction One parent produces one or more identical offspring
Sexual Reproduction Involves two parents and produces one or more new organisms that have a mix of genetic material from both parents
Meiosis Cell division that produces sex cells that have only half the number of chromosomes
Sperm A sex cell, contains half the chromosomes of the male.
Egg A sex cell, contains half the chromosomes of the female.
Heredity The passing of physical or mental characteristics from one generation to the next.
Pedigree A chart that shows the family history of an individual
Gregor Mendel Mid-nineteenth century monk who is credited as the father of genetics.
Purebred An organism of many generations that have the same form of a trait.
Trait Physical characteristics of an organism that are influence by DNA.
Gene A unit of heredity that occupies a specific location on a chromosome.
Allele A variation in a gene
Dominant Alle The variation in a gene whose trait always shows up when the allele is present.
Recessive Allele The hidden trait whenever a dominant variation is present.
Punnet Square A chart that shows all the possible ways alleles can combine in a genetic cross.
Genotype A specific allele combination
Phenotype The physical trait expressed by the alleles
Mutation A random change in DNA, can be good, bad, or neutral.
Created by: krussoscience