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Chapter 12

DNA and RNA, Protein Synthesis, Mutations

What is DNA... what type of biomolecule and what does it stand for ( spelled correctly) A nucleic acid ..Deoxyribonucleic Acid
What is RNA... what type of biomolecule and what does it stand for ( spelled correctly) A nucleic acid... ribonucleic Acid
What are the subunits of DNA and RNA ( nucleic acids) nucleotides
Which nucleic acid has the master code called the genetic code that guides the synthesis of proteins DNA
Which nucleic acids are important as helpers to carry out the process of protein synthesis RNA's
What are three types of RNA messenger, ribosomal, and transfer
What are three parts of a nucleotide a sugar (either deoxyribose or ribose ... depending on the nucleic acid.... a phosphate group.... and nitrogen bases (4 types for each nucleic acid)
what are the nitrogen bases that DNA and RNA have in common Adenine, cytosine and guanine
What describes the characteristic shape of DNA a double helix ( a twisted ladder... the two strands wrapped around one another)
Which RNA copies DNA's code and takes the code to the cytoplasm for protein synthesis messenger RNA
Which type of RNA is involved in making the structure where protein synthesis occurs ribosomal RNA ( RNA and proteins make the structure known as the ribosome)
Which type of RNA is involved with picking up an amino acid and taking it to the mRNA located at the ribosome transfer RNA
The three nitrogen bases that are complementary to the 3 bases on a mRNA are located on _____ and called a/an_____ tRNA and called an anticodon
The three nitrogen bases on a mRNA that code for one amino acid are called a/an____ codon
What nitrogen base in unique to RNA and describe how it bonds to other bases in DNA or RNA uracil .... If you have DNA and are making mRNA if you have an Adenine exposed a Uracil will bond to it. If you have mRNA with a uracil exposed an A will bond... if an A is exposed a uracil will bond
What is the phase to remember which nitrogen bases bond together in nucleic acids that has to do with a tree apples in the tree or apples under the tree ( adenine bonds with thymine... or adenine bonds wtih uracil)
What does car in the garage have to do with DNA or RNA car in the garage refers to cytosine bonding with guanine
What alternates to make up the rails of the DNA ladder, the backbone, or the outside rails alternating sugars and phosphate ( this is an area that doesn't vary and does not act as a genetic code)
What makes up the rungs of the DNA ladder complementary nitrogen bases such as A-T and G-C .... adenine and thymine or guanine and cytosine
what holds the nitrogen bases together in the DNA molecule and explain why this is important weak hydrogen bonds. because they are weak this is where the DNA opens in order to do transcription
What part of the DNA acts as a genetic code to help guide the synthesis of proteins the sequence of nitrogen bases
Which scientist or scientists is/ or are given the most credit for solving the structure of DNA (winning a nobel prize ) Watson and Crick
Who is given credit for photo 51 a photograph of DNA showing a double helix structure Rosealind Franklin....
Give a brief summary of the relationship between Rosaline Franklin and Watson and Crick Rosaline working with DNA ,took x-ray photograph that showed a double helix.. Watson and Crick borrowed this information w/o permission. She died early of cancer, and was not recognized in their nobel prize. they admitted how she helped and has bee
What is the central dogma DNA codes for RNA which guides the synthesis of proteins
what is transcription the process in the nucleus where DNA opens up and one side acts as a code to make mRNA ( a copy of DNA's information for protein)
Describe the structure of transfer RNA and what is located on each end of the tRNA the transfer RNA is a smaller type of RNA that looks like a cloverleaf with two special ends ... one end has 3 bases called an anticodon( this will hook into a mRNA codon) and the other end picks up a specific amino acid
What is the function of a transfer RNA transports amino acids to the mRNA and puts them in the correct order to make a protein ... according to the DNA code that was copied in the mRNA
What is translation the second part of protein synthesis where the DNA code found in mRNA is read and put into a chain of amino acids to form a protein. ( the nitrogen base language of DNA and mRNA are interpreted an changed into amino acid language to make a protein
what part of the mRNA and tRNA hook together to get the correct amino acids in position to make a protein the codon and the anticodon
mRNA is made as a complement of _______ DNA
If a DNA has the following codons for a gene ... ATG CGA then the mRNA would be UAC GCU
How many bases act as codons or anticodons on DNA or RNA 3
Most codons code for _______ but 3 are called ____ codons and there is one ____ codon (AUG) amino acids ( multiple codons can code for one amino acid).. stop codons and there is one start codon
Where does transcription happen the nucleus
Where does translation happen the cytoplasm at the ribosome
What acts as the interpreter of the mRNA codon to help make protein transfer RNA
if you had these two mRNA codons what tRNA anticodons would hook on to them.. UAC AUG AUG UAC
when you use the chart to figure out what amino acid the transfer RNA brings to the mRNA... what do you have to use ( what is the chart based off) you need to look up the MRNA codon... you look up first base, second base and third base and find their intersection
What happens as the tRNA delivers its amino acid to the mRNA and the amino acid is attached to the other aa's in the chain... the tRNA is no longer needed... IT IS RELEASED ( can go get more amino acids to help with protein synthesis)
what is happening to the mRNA and ribosome during translation the mRNA attaches to the ribosome and moves through it one codon at a time allowing the amino acids to link until a stop codon is reached and the amino acid chain peels off the ribosome to form the protein
what is a mutation a permanent change in a cells DNA
mutations cause changes in _____ they may be nonfunctional or work differently and cause variations in alleles proteins
Mutations are important for the process that causes changes in populations called___ ( because they cause variations in genes or different alleles) EVOLUTION
a change in a single base of a DNA is generally known as a ___ mutation point mutation
Three well known point mutations are substitution, deletion, and insertion
an insertion or deletion can cause a mutation known as a/an___ FRAMESHIFT
explain a frameshift mutation at the point of the mutation ( usually an insertion or deletion)a change in the multiples of threes occur changing the amino acids in the sequence ( a major change in the protein)
Two categories of mutations are ____ mutations and ____ mutations gene and chromosome
which types of mutation generally have drastic effects on an organism chromosome mutations
Explain 3 ways that chromosome mutations can occur you could delete a large section of the chromosome .... a piece can be moved to a different spot on the same chromosome.... or a piece can be moved to a different chromosome
Describe things that can happen with a substitution mutation ( a type of point mutation) (3) 1. it could code for the wrong amino acid 2. it could code for a stop codon and cause the protein to terminate early or 3. it could code for the same amino acid and really make the same protein
What is a neutral or a silent mutation it would be a mutation that ended up coding for the same amino acid as the original.. so it doesn't cause a change in the protein... there are multiple codons that code for the same amino acid
What disease happens because of a substitution of and Adenine and a Thymine in a DNA codon... it cause the RBC to have a different shape and not function normally ( doesn't carry oxygen well and clogs vessels) Sickle Cell Anemia
Why are most mistakes corrected in a DNA molecule before they cause a problem the enzyme that helps with DNA replication also has a PROOFREADING function
A substance that causes a mutation mutagen
examples of mutagens chemicals and radiation
types of radiation that are highly mutagenic x-ray and gamma rays
How is ultraviolet radiation dangerous to DNA molecules it causes neighboring thymines to bind to each other
What types of cells can have mutations both body cells (somatic) and gametes ( sex cells or germ-line cells)
Mutations in these cells only affect the person where it occurred and do not get passed to the next generation body cell mutations
Body cell mutations may be neutral if : ( list two things) they are in a portion of DNA that is not used by that cell or if they didn't really change the amino acids in the protein
many body cell mutations can cause the cell cycle to be unregulated and lead to cancer
what mutations are passed on to offspring and are present in every cell of the offspring sex cell mutations
Created by: shemehl
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