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AP Biology Chap 22

AP Biology Chapter 22: The Origin of Species

Speciation The process by which on species splits into two or more species
Macroevolution The broad pattern of evolution above the species level
Species A group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable
Reproductive isolation The existence of biological factors (barriers) that impede members of two species from interbreeding and producing viable
Hybrids Offspring that result from an interspecific mating
Prezygotic barriers Block fertilization from occuring
Postzygotic barriers May contribute to reproductive isolation after the hybrid zygote is formed
Habitat isolation Two species that occupy different habitats within the same area may encounter each other rarely
Temporal isolation Species that breed during different times of the day
Behavioral isolation Courtship rituals that attract mates and other behaviors unique to a species are effective reproductive barriers
Mechanical isolation Morphological differences prevent successful completion of mating
Gametic isolation Sperm of one species may not be able to fertilize the eggs of another species
Reduced hybrid viability The genes of different parent species may interact in ways that impair the hybrid's development or survival in its environment
Reduced hybrid fertility Hybrids are vigorous but sterile
Hybrid breakdown Some first-generation hybrids are viable and fertile
Allopatric speciation Gene flow is interrupted when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations
Sympatric speciation Speciation occurs in populations that live in the same geographic area
Polyploidy An organism with an extra set of chromosomes
Autopolyploid An individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species
Allopolyploid A sterile hybrid that has changed into a fertile polyploid
Hybrid zone A region in which members of different species meet and mate
Punctuated equilibria Periods of apparent stasis punctuated by sudden change
Created by: Hajra Maqsoos