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Bacteria

All Microbiology Bacteria

NameIdentificationToxinsDisease
Staphylococcus saprophyticus Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (+)/ Coagulase (-)/ Grape Clusters/ Grow in salt/ Present on skin & mucous membranes Encapsulate/ None Important Urinary Tract Infections: Especially in young, sexually active women.
Streptococcus pyogenes Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (-)/ Beta-hemolytic/ Short chain colonies/ Encapsulate/ M protein/ A antigen Exotoxin: heat-liable and act as superantigen. Pharyngitis: in children 5-15 years old sore throat, fever, malaise, headache. / Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: Fever, hypotension, shock/ Rheumatic fever: Complication of pharyngitis. Erythematous rash. Inflammation of heart, joints, blood ves
Streptococcus agalactiae Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (-)/ Beta-hemolytic/ Short chain colonies/ Encapsulate/ Transplacental None Important Meningitis in newborn: Develops between 1 week and 3 months of age./ Meningitis in elderly & immunocompromised
Streptococcus viridans Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (-)/ Alpha-hemolytic/ Short chain colonies/ Encapsulate None Important Dental caries and subacute endocarditis.
Streptococcus pneumonia Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (-)/ Alpha-hemolytic/ Lancet-shaped diplococci/ Encapsulate None Important Pneumonia: Bacteria multiply in alveolar spaces with productive cough in lower lobes of the lungs. Abrupt, sustained fever/ Otitis Media/ Sinusitis/ Meningitis: common in adults or children. High mortality if untreated.
Enterococcus faecalis Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (-)/ Gamma-hemolytic/ Grow in salt/ Normal GI flora/ VRE (vencomycin resistance) None Important Catheter-associated urinary tract infection: Especially for those receiving broad spectrum antibiotics/ Spesis/ Endocarditis
Enterococcus faecium Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (-)/ Gamma-hemolytic/ Grow in salt/ Normal GI flora/ VRE (vencomycin resistance) None Important Catheter-associated urinary tract infection: Especially for those receiving broad spectrum antibiotics/ Spesis/ Endocarditis
Neisseria meningitidis Cocci/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+)/ Catalyse (+)/ Diplococci/ Maltose fermenter/ Encapsulation/ Pili antigenic variation Lipooligosaccharide (LOS): Has lipid A and core, but lacks O-antigen. Lipid A expresses endotoxin activity. IgA protease: Cleaves IgA and creates immunologically inactive Fc beta-lactamases that degrade penicillin Meningitis: Respiratory droplets among people in prolonged close contact. Highest for those who live in close populations (military, prisons, dorms)/ Sepsis/ Bronchopneumonia
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Cocci/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+)/ Catalyse (+)/ Diplococci/ Glucose fermenter/ Pili antigenic variation Lipooligosaccharide (LOS): Has lipid A and core, but lacks O-antigen. Lipid A expresses endotoxin activity. IgA protease: Cleaves IgA and creates immunologically inactive Fc beta-lactamases that degrade penicillin Gonorrhea: Second most common STD. Asymptomatic in 50% women, but seen as vaginal discharge, dysuria, abdominal pain. Symptomatic in 90% of men as purulent urethral discharge, dysuria./ Purulent arthritis/ Purulent conjunctivitis: in newborns.
Moraxella catarrhalis Cocci/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+)/ Catalyse (+)/ Normal RT UG flora beta-lactamases that degrade penicillin Otitis Media/ Sinusitis/ Bronchitis/ Pneumonia
Enterobacteriaceae Rods/ Gram (-)/ Catalase (+)/ Oxidase (-)/ Glucose fermenter/ Encapsulate Endotoxin (LPS): lipid A component triggers release of cytokines causing leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, fever, decreased peripheral circulation, shock.
Enterotoxigenic escherichia coli Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ CRE (Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae) Enterotoxins of heat-labile toxins (A-B toxin & increase cAMP levels causing watery diarrhea) and heat stable toxins (Increase cGMP causing hypersecretion of fluids) Traveler's Diarrhea: Develops after 1-2 day incubation and persists for 3-5 days./ UTI/ Neonatal Meningitis
Enteropathogenic escherichia coli Rods/ Gram (-)/ CRE (Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae) Bacterial attachment to epithelial cells of small intestine followed by active secretion of proteins into the host epithelial cell resulting in loss of cell surface integrity and cell death. Infant Diarrhea; In developing countries seen as watery diarrhea, fever, vomiting./ UTI/ Neonatal Meningitis
Enteroaggregative escherichia coli Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ CRE (Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae) Enteroaggregative heat stable toxin causing fluid secretion Infant Diarrhea/ UTI/ Neonatal Meningitis
Enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Most common strain is O157:H7/ CRE (Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae) Shiga toxin: A-B toxin where B binds to intestinal and renal endothelial cells. A subunit causes cessation of protein synthesis. Gastroenteritis: bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. 3-4 days incubation 4-10 days until resolution. Hemolytic uremic syndrome: In infected children under 10. Destruction of glomerular endothelial cells./ UTI/ Neonatal Meningitis
Enteroinvasive escherichia coli Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ CRE (Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae) None Important Dysentery-like diarrhea: Mucous and blood in stool caused by bacteria invading colonic epithelial cells and cause epithelial cell destruction, inflammation and ulceration./ UTI/ Neonatal Meningitis
Salmonella enteritidis Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Most common in the US Toxin stimulates cAMP and active fluid secretion. Gastroenteritis: Consumption of contaminated poultry, eggs, diary products. 6-48 hours after infection and last 2-7 days. Nausea, vomiting, nonbloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, myalgias, headache
Salmonella typhi Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Survive in the gallbladder/ Typhoid Mary None Important Typhoid fever: Rose spots & high fever of 103-104 after 10-14 days of infection. Persists for 1 or more weeks followed by gastrointestinal symptoms.
Salmonella paratyphi Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Survive in the gallbladder None Important Paratyphoid fever: Milder febrile illness.
Shigella dysenteriae Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Non-motile/ Not lactose fermenter/ Actin tail-mediated cell-to-cell spread/ 100-200 bacteria can establish disease Shiga toxin: A-B toxin where B binds to intestinal and renal endothelial cells. A subunit causes cessation of protein synthesis. Bacterial dysentery: Infectious characterized by inflammation of intestine, abdominal pain, and diarrhea with stools containing blood and mucus/ HUS
Shigella sonnei Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Non-motile/ Not lactose fermenter/ Actin tail-mediated cell-to-cell spread/ 100-200 bacteria can establish disease Shiga toxin: A-B toxin where B binds to intestinal and renal endothelial cells. A subunit causes cessation of protein synthesis. Predominant in industralized countries./ Inflammatory diarrhea that is watery or classic dysentery.
Klebsiella pneumoniae Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Encapsulate/ Weakened immune system/ Mucoid appearance/ CRE (Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae) None Important Pneumonia: Destruction of alveolar spaces, formation of cavities, production of blood tinged sputum./ Sepsis/ Meningitis/ UTIs
Proteus mirabilis Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Urease (+) None Important Kidney stones/ Bladder infection/ Cystitis/ Kidney infection
Yersinia enterocolitica Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae None Imporant Food poisoning: Fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea (often bloody)
Serratia marcescens Rods/ Gram (-)/ Enterobacteriaceae/ Red colony None Important UTI/ Pneumonia/ Bacteremia
Vibrio cholerae Comma-shaped rod/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+) Cholera Toxin: A-B toxin where A subunit is internalized and increases intracellular cAMP causing hypersecretion of water and electrolytes Cholera: spread by contaminated water and food. Rice-water stools, vomiting.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Comma-shaped rod/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+)/ beta-hemolytic/ Require salt for growth (Halophilic) TDH: Heat-stable enterotoxin which induces chloride ion secretion in epithelial cells by increasing intracellular calcium Bacteria gastroenteritis: Self-limited diarrhea to a mild, cholera-like illness. Explosive watery diarrhea.
Vibrio vulnificus Comma-shaped rod/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+)/ Require salt for growth (Halophilic) Cytolytic toxins that cause tissue necrosis Wound infections and most common cause of vibrio septicemia
Campylobacter jejuni Comma-shaped rod/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+)/ Catalase (+)/ Microaerophilic/ Grow at 42 C NOT 25 C None Important Consumption of undercooked pultry, unpasteurized milk, contaminated water. Most common cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the US. Complication can be Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Campylobacter fetus Comma-shaped rod/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+)/ Catalase (+)/ Microaerophilic Grow at 25 C NOT 42 C None Important Septicemia, meningitis, abscesses, gastroenteritis.
Helicobacter pylori Spiral rods/ Gram (-)/ Urease (+)/ Catalase (+)/ Oxidase (+)/ Microaerophilic Blockage of acid production by a bacterial acid-inhibitory protein. Gastritis/ Peptic ulcers/ Gastric adenocarcinoma/ Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue B-cell lymphomas.
Haemophilus influenza type b Rods/ Gram (-) None Important Meningits: most common cause of pediatric meningitis/ Epiglottitis: can progress rapidly to obstruction of the airway and death/
Haemophilus ducreyi Rods/ Gram (-) None Important Canchroid: STD, Painful lesion accompanied by inguinal lymphadenopathy.
Bordetella pertussis Rods/ Gram (-) Pertussis toxin: A-B toxin that leads to increased cAMP levels which causes increased respiratory secretions and mucus production in lungs. Whooping cough: Highly contagious. -> Catarrhal Stage where peak bacteria are produced & contageous -> Parxysmal stage where there is whooping -> Convalescent stage with general coughing and malaise
Legionella pneumophilia Rods/ Gram (-)/ Catalase (+)/ Oxidase (-)/ Intracellular bacteria/ seen in silver stain None Important Air conditioning cooling towers, condensers, and water systems. Exposure by contaminated aerosols. Parasitize free-living amoeba./ Pontiac Fever: Self-limiting febrile flu-like disease/ Legionnaires disease: High fever, pneumonia, GIT, CNS, kidneys
Francisella tularensis Rods/ Gram (-)/ Capsule/ Carried by rabbits/ Intracellular pathogen None Important Tularemia: Skin lesion accompanied by lymphadenopathy and bacteremia. Possibly conjunctivitis and regional lymphadenopathy. Rarely and lethally in the lungs.
Brucella melitensis Rods/ Gram (-)/ Catalase (+)/ Oxidase (+)/ Faculative intracellular bacteria None Important Brucellois: Undulant fever, sepsis, granulomas or abscesses.
Yersinia pestis Prolonged storage at 4 C can selective enhance isolation. None Important Bubonic plague: High fever, painful bubo, bacteremia develops rapidly 75% mortality if not treated./ Pneumonic plague: Fever, malaise, pulmonary signs. This one is highly infectious and 90% morbid if untreated.
Bartonella henselae Rods/ Gram (-)/ Animal reservoir in cats. None Important Cat scratch disease: Regional lymphadenopathy, fever, fatigue, headache, and malaise.
Pasteurella multocida Rods/ Gram (-)/ Catalase (+)/ Oxidase (+)/ Found in mouth of cats and dogs None Important Skin and soft tissue infections/ Cellulitis and abscesses/ Sepsis
Bacillus anthracis Rods/ Gram (+)/ Spores/ Encapsulation Edema toxin: Protective Antigen + Edema factor which increases intracellular cAMP resulting in edema/ Lethal toxin: Protective Antigen + Lethal factor which cleaves MAP kinase leads to cell death. Anthrax inoculation: Acquired through skin abrasions and is characterized by local inflammatory necrotic lesions./ Gastrointestinal anthrax: Rare but fatal/ Inhalation anthrax: Rapid and massive edema in the chest followed by CV shock & death
Bacillus cereus Rods/ Gram (+)/ Spores/ Encapsulation Heat stable enterotoxin causing vomiting form/ Heat-liable enterotoxin causing diarrhea form. Vomiting disease: consumption of contaminated rice seen by vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramps./ Diarrheal disease: true infection, lasts longer than 1 day, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps.
Clostridium perfringens Rods/ Gram (+)/ Spores/ Anaerobic metabolism/ beta-hemolysis Exotoxins: alpha-toxin cleaves phospholipid of cell mebmrane leading to lysis./ Enerotoxin: super antigen, heat-labile. Gas gangrene: Gas formation due to metabolic activity of the rapidly dividing bacteria. Very foul smelling./ Gastroenteritis: abdominal cramps and watery diarrhea with no fever, nausea, or vomiting./ Necrotizing enteritis: beta-toxin caused
Clostridium tetani Rods/ Gram (+)/ Spores/ Anaerobic metabolism Heat-labile neurotoxin: A-B toxin that inhibits the release of inhibitory GABA neurotransmitters Tetanus: lockjaw, persistent back spasm.
Clostridium botulinum Rods/ Gram (+)/ Spores/ Anaerobic metabolism Botulinum toxin: A-B toxin inactivates the proteins that regulate the release of acetylcholine. Foodborne botulism: descending weakness of peripheral muscles./ Infant botulism: floppy baby syndrome
Clostridium difficile Rods/ Gram (+)/ Spores/ Anaerobic metabolism Toxin A: Enterotoxin causes inflammation/ Toxin B: Cytotoxin that destroys cellular cytoskeleton. Pseudomembranous colitis: Overgrowth of bacteria in the gut following antibiotic therapy. Diarrhea, toxic megacolon.
Prevotella melaninogenica ??? ??? Infection caused by human bite.
Listeria monocytogens Rod/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (+)/ Oxidase (-)/ Growth in high conc. salt./ beta-hemolysis/ faculative intracellular pathogen None Important Infection by eating contaminated food./ Pregnet women are 20 times more likely to get it. Sepsis & fetus infection. Neonatal listeriosis: meningitis, sepsis
Cyanobacterium diphtheriae Rod/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (+)/ club or v-shaped/ Elek test Diptheria toxin: A-B exotoxin where A subunit passes through the endosomal membrane into the cytosol and inhibits protein synthesis. Diptheria: upper respiratory tract illness with sore throat, low fever, and pesudomembrane on the tonsils & pharynx. Bull's neck. Highly contagious
Nocardia Rods/ Gram (+)/ acid-fast (+) None Important Pulmonary Nocardiosis: immunocompromised patients devlop pneumonia with cavitation and CNS dissemination Cutaneous Infections: primary infection in subcuaneous tissues, secondary are cutaneous
Actinomyces Rods/ Gram (+)/ Resemble fungi/ Normal oral flora but not present on the skin surface None Important Actinomycosis: characterized by the development of chronic sulfur granulomatous lesions, become suppurative, form abscesses connected by sinus tracts.
Propionibacterium ??? None Important Acne/ Opportunistic infections
Pseudomonas Rods/ Gram (-)/ Oxidase (+) Encapsulation Exotoxin A disrupts protein synthesis/ Produce beta-lactamases Pneumonia (Cystic fibrosis common)/ Burn wound infections
Mycobacteria tuberculosis Rods/ Gram (+)/ Acid-fast/ Slow growth/ Leading death cause in HIV Complex, lipid-rich mycolic acid cell wall making surface slippery and hard for phagocyte to eat. Tuberculosis: 4 Stages -> Immediate clearance, latent infection, primary active disease, secondary reactivated disease
Mycobacteria leprae Rods/ Gram (+)/ Acid-fast/ Slow growth Complex, lipid-rich mycolic acid cell wall making surface slippery and hard for phagocyte to eat. Tuberculoid leprosy: Strong cellular immune reaction with many lymphocytes and granulomas present in the tissues./ Lepromatous leprosy: Strong antibody resistance but defect in cellular response to antigens. Most infectious form of leprosy.
Borrelia burgdoferi Spirochetes/ Gram (-)/ Tick-borne None Important Lyme disease: Erythematous cutaneous lesion then arthritis. Antigens cross react with self-antigens. Hard ticks
Treponema pallidum Spirochetes/ Gram (-)/ Darkfield microscopy/ Extreme liable None Important Syphilis: Primary phase is a painless chanchre (which is highly infectious). Secondary phase is marked by skin lesions over entire body surface. Late phase involves all tissues./ Congenital can be given transplacentally
Leptospira interrrogans Spirochetes/ Gram (-)/ Hook shaped at one or both ends None Important Multiply and damage the endothelium of small blood vessels/ Meningitis/ Renal and hepatic failure, extensive vasculitis, myocarditis
Borrelia recurrentis Spirochetes/ Gram (-)/ Louse-borne None Important Relapsing fever: Febrile illness with recurrent episodes of fever and septicemia. Epidemic can be spread person to person by lice & endemic is spread by soft ticks.
Chlamydia trachomatis Super small/ Gram (-)/ No peptidoglycan layer None Important Trachoma: leading cause of preventable blindness. Primarily in children./ Urogenital infection STD. Women asymptomatic. Men symptomatic
Chlamydophila psittaci Super small/ Gram (-)/ No peptidoglycan layer None Important Psittacosis: respiratory tract infection, walking pneumonia
Chlamydophila pneumoniae Super small/ Gram (-)/ No peptidoglycan layer None Important Atypical pneumonia: walking pneumonia.
Rickettsia rickettsii Rods/ Gram (-)/ Obligate intracellular bacteria/ arthropod vectors None Important Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Bite of infected tick, damage to blood vessels and vasculitis seen as a rash (petechial lesions)
Rickettsia prowazekii Rods/ Gram (-)/ Obligate intracellular bacteria/ arthropod vectors None Important Louse borne typhus: Sudden onset of chills, fever, headache, prostration, and other influenza-like symptoms. Death occurs from peripheral vascular collapse or from bacterial pneumonia
Rickettsia typhi Rods/ Gram (-)/ Obligate intracellular bacteria/ arthropod vectors None Important Typhus: Sudden onset of chills, fever, headache, prostration, and other influenza-like symptoms. Death occurs from peripheral vascular collapse or from bacterial pneumonia
Ehrlichia Cocci/ Gram (-)/ No LPS or peptidoglycan/ Tick is primary vector None Important Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis: Infects blood monocytes and mononuclear phagocytes. Develop high fever, rash. 1-2 weeks after tick bite. Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.
Anaplasma Cocci/ Gram (-)/ No LPS or peptidoglycan/ Tick is primary vector None Important Human anaplasmosis: Infects granulocytes leads to flulike illness and leukopenia and thrombocytopenia
Coxiella burnetii Replicate in phagosomes of infected cells./ Animal reservoir None Important Q fever: acute febrile disease, walking pneumonia. Chronic disease
Mycoplasma Do NOT have a cell wall./ Membrane contains sterols./ Transmitted via respiratory droplets/ No invasion Function as superantigen Tracheobronchitis and pneumonia because it inhibits ciliary motion and destroys mucosa. Dry cough walking pneumonia.
Staphylococcus aureus Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (+)/ Coagulase (+)/ Grape Clusters/ Grow in salt/ Present on skin & mucous membranes/ Encapsulate/ MRSA/ Biofilm Exfoliative Toxin: breaks desmosomes holding epithelial cells together/ Enterotoxin A: Heat-stable causes intoxication rather than infection esp. ham&pork/ Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1: heat and proteolysis-resistant exotoxin superantigen Scalded skin syndrome (Exfoliative Toxin): Peeling skin / Food Poisoning (Enterotoxin A): Severe vomiting and watery diarrhea lasting 24 hrs/ Toxic shock syndrome (Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1): Fever, hypotension, and shock/
Staphylococcus epidermidis Cocci/ Gram (+)/ Catalase (+)/ Coagulase (-)/ Grape Clusters/ Grow in salt/ Present on skin & mucous membranes Encapsulate/ None Important Endocarditis: Biofilm attaches to artificial valve and slowly closes it or separates it at suture line/ Catheter infection: Biofilm attaches to catheter and protects it/ Prosthetic Joint Infection
Created by: carchase