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Chapter 9

Frontiers of Biotechnology

Restriction enzyme an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA into fragments by recognizing specific nucleotide sequences and cutting the DNA at those sequences
gen electrophoresis method of separating various lengths of DNA strands by applying an electrical current to a gel
restriction map diagram that shows the lengths of fragments between sites in the strand of DNA
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for increasing the quantity of DNA by separating it into two strands and adding primers and enzymes
primer a short, single-stranded fragment of DNA or RNA that is required for the initiation of DNA replication
DNA fingerprint a pattern of DNA characteristics that is unique, or nearly so, to an individual organism
clone an organism, cell, or piece of genetic material that is genetically identical to one from which it is derived; to make a genetic duplicate
genetic engineering a technology in which the genome of a living cell is modified for medical or industrial use
recombinant DNA DNA molecules that are artificially created by combining DNA from different sources
plasmid a genetic structure that can replicate independently of the main chromosome(s) of a cell; usually, a circular DNA molecule in bacteria (prokaryotypes)
transgenic organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species
gene knockout genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism's genes are prevented from being expressed
genomics the study of entire genomes, especially by using technology to compare genes within and between species
gene sequencing process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes
Human Genome Project a research effort to sequence and locate the entire collection of genes in human cells
bioinformatics the application of information technologies in biology, especially in genetics
DNA microarray research tool used to study gene expression
proteomics study and comparison of all the proteins produced by an organism's genome
genetic screening process of testing DNA to determine the chance a person has, or might pass on, a genetic disorder
gene therapy a technique that replaces a gene into a cell to correct a heredity disease or to improve the genome
Created by: kaseywallace
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