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anatomy Greek: to cut up the structure
physiology Greek: physis=nature, logis=logic. A branch of biology that deals with teh processes and activities of living beings and relates form to function
Basal Nomina Anatomica (BNA) universal anatomical nomenclature (1895, Basel, Switzerland) 1) all terms in Latin (but countries can translate) 2) Each structure has one term 3) Terms should be descriptive
saggital any vertical plane separating sides of the body
coronal/frontal Section dividing front and back
transverse/horizontal section at any horizontal plane
ventral away from the backbone-towards the font of the body
dorsal toward the backbone or away from the front of the body
anterior toward the front, away from the back
posterior toward the back, away from the front
medial toward the axis or midline
lateral away from the axis or midline
proximal toward the body or towards the root
distal away from the body
cranial/rostral toward the head
caudal toward the tail
external toward the outer surface
internal toward the inner surface
superficial toward the surface
deep relatively under the surface
superior upper
inferior lower
5 types of tissue 1) Epithelial 2) Connective 3) Muscular 4) Nervous 5) Vascular
epithelial tissue cells arranged in mosaics forming sheets that cover surfaces of the body and line tubes or passages leading to the interior of the body and line the cavities of the body
types of epithelium 1) endothelial 2) mesothelium 3) epithelium proper
endothelial flat, single layers of cells. smooth surfaces. lines blood and lymph vessels.
mesothelium lines the pleural cavities, peritoneal cavity, and the pericardial cavity
epithelium proper epidermis and internal membranes which are continuous with the skin (mucous membranes lining the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and generative tracts)
connective tissue relatively few cells and proportionately large amount of intercellular substance (matrix) classified on the basis of the characteristics of the nonliving intercellular substances which compose the matrix, not on the living cell characteristics
loose connective tissue areolar adipose
areolar tissue just beneath the skin (bed for skin and mucous membrane) loose. cells in irregular network of fibers
adipose tissue like areolar but with fat cells
dense connective tissue closely packed fibers. often collagenous or elastic fibers. classified on basis of intercellular substances: white/unyielding or yellow/yielding tendons, ligaments, fascia, reticular
tendons tough, nonelastic cords composed of closely packed parallel fibers connect muscles to bone, cartilage, or one another
apeneurosis white, flattened, tendonous coverings of muscles
ligaments closely packed parallel elastic fibers bone to bone, cartilage to bone, cartilage to cartilage
fascia responsible for the arrangement of muscles into functional units subcutaneous fascia is found over the entire body just under the skin
reticular tissue primative. provides supporting framework for essential organs like the liver delicate matrix of cells with processes extending to adjoining cells
hyaline cartilage blusih-white, transparent when fresh. covers articular surfaces of joints and forms framework for lower respiratory tract no blood supply. becomes yellow and brittle w/ age
elastic cartilage yellow and opaque b/c of elastic fibers flexible. (ear, epiglottis, larynx)
fibrocartilage dense network of collagenous fibers and cartilage cells forms the intervertibral discs of spinal column
bone withstands compression like concrete. very tensile. organic salts compose 2/3 (85% calcium phosphate, 15% calcium carbonate, calcium flouride, and magnesium flouride) 206 bones in adult human body
axial skeleton head and trunk
appendicular skeleton arms and legs and pelvic girdle
periosteum covers all bone marrow except at the articular surfaces provides attachment for muscle tendons contains osteoblasts
osteoblasts assist in the initial formation of new bone and later in life generate new bone for repair
3 types of joints 1) synarthrodial 2) amphiarthrodial 3) diarthrodial
synarthrodial bones in almost direct contact and joined together by thin connective tissue to prevent movement skull
amphiarthrodial yielding synchondros and symphysis
synchrondos rigid joint that ossifies with age skull at birth
symphysis articular facets are covered by hyaline cartilage with fibrocartilage between vertebra, pubic bone
diarthrodial moveable joints - joined by bands of fibrous tissue to create the articular capsule. small amount of fluid is produced to lubricate the joint six types, classified on the basis of movement
muscle tissue 329 muscles, all paired but 2 (diaphragm and procerus) composed of 2 proteins: myosin and actin usually have 2 attachments (origin and insertion)
origin the attachment that is fixed or less engaged in movement
insertion the structure being acted upon; more distal in extremeties
3 types of muscle tissue 1) striated 2) smooth 3) myocardium
striated muscle a.k.a. skeletal muscle. long fibers crossed at regular intervals by transverse bands dark=actin light=myosin
smooth muscle more primitive than striated. innervated by autonomic nervous system, independent of direct voluntary control blood vessels, digestive system, bronchial tubes
myocardium only found in the heart properties of smooth and striated muscle
nerve tissue composed of irritable cells that are able to modify their biochemical composition 3 parts: 1) cell body 2) dendrites 3) axons
dendrites carry info to the cell body from other cells. short w/ multiple branches
axons conduct info away from cell body to other cells
synapse neural synapses permit info to travel in just one direction neural tissue is capable of manufacturing neurotransmitters that inhabit or facilitate neural transmission more than 50 neurotransmitters discontinuity b/w neurons b/c of synaptic cleft
motor unit a functional unit for producing movement and consists of a nerve cell and all the muscle fibers innervated by it high innertavion ratio - crude, large movements low innervation ratio - small, refined, rapid movements (ex: fingers, lips)
vascular tissue 10% total body weight
blood composed of corpuscels and platelets suspended in plasma
erythrocytes no nuclei --> not real cells carries oxygen from lungs to body cells filled w/ hemoglobin
platelets cell fragments important for clotting
lymph the nutrient plasma of the tissues (cells in lymph = lymphocytes) b-lymphocytes produce antibodies. immune response against virus infected cells and tumor cells
respiratory tract nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
crochoid cartilage where trachea starts
trachea suspended from larynx 16-20 cartilaginous rings and fibroelastic (hyalin cartilage) membranes/tissue branches into 2 trachea (--> lungs) epitheleal lining (collumnar cilliated epithelium)
bronchi when trachea bifurcates 24 branchings on each side right lung covers more space (3 secondary branchings, left has 2) similar to trachea smaller branches have less cartilage and are more effective in the exchange of gaes terminal bronchi have alveoli
alveoli "pits" where gaseous exchange occurs in the lungs
lungs sit on diaphragm fissures divide into lobes horizontal and oblique fissures (just oblique on L) always have residual oxygen inhale time roughly = exhale time ribcage lifts and expands
parietal plurae lining/covering of lungs and diaphragm smooth and frictionless b/w lungs and thorasic cavity
vertebral column 32 or 33 vertebra foundation ribs attach intervertebral discs (cartilage) S curve 7 cervical, 12 thorasic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 1 coccyx
vertebral foramen hole in bone for spinal cord
atlas skull sits on top
axis odontoid process pivot for atlas
floating ribs 11 and 12 don't attach to vertebra or sternum
clavicle collar bone
scapula shoulder blades
acromion shoulder
sternum breastbone
xyphoid process bottom of sternum
manubrium top of sternum
suprasternal notch area between collarbone
vertebrochondral ribs 8-10 don't attach to sternum directly
vertebrosternal ribs 1-7 attach to sternum and vertebra
head (of rib) attaches to vertebra
coxal bones hip bone
illium big bone in pelvis
ishcium bones you sit on
pubis pubic bone
acetabulum socket for femur
illiac crest hip bone
ischial tuberosity where you sit
greater sciatic notch sciatic nerve passes thru under sacroiliac joint
pubic symphasis fibrocartilage where the 2 halves meet
inguinal ligament from anterior superior iliac spine to pubic symphasis
sacroiliac joint where sacrum and ilium join
coracoid process hook on scapula
glenoid fossa where humerus joins scapula
diaphragm upside-down bowl-shaped muscle unpaired 3 portions: 1) sternal - xiphoid process, short fibers 2) costal - cartilages of ribs 7-12; fleshy 3) vertebral - upper lumbar vertebrae all insert into central tendon
apeneurosis flattened tendon
diaphragmic openings aortic hiatus, esophageal hiatus, foramen vena cava
external intercostals more prominent and strong than internal 11 space between ribs course downwad and lateral medial in front inspiratory
internal intercostals deep to external intercostals 11 from anterior limits of intercostal spaces to the posterior angle of the ribs, continue to vertebral column inspiratory
subcostals musculomembranous sheet that lines the back of the thorax same course as internal intercostals can go between more than 2 ribs
transversus thoracis (triangularis sterni) originate from lower sternum upward and outward attach to ribs 2 through 6 vertical, less angle, then horizontal pulls ribcage down
costal elevators 12 on each side originate from transverse processes of C7 and upper 11 thorasic vert insert in rib immediately below (short (levatores costarum breves)) or the next one (long (levatores costarum longi)) lift ribs
serratus poseterior muscles inferior: originates from apeneuroses from bottom 2 thorasic and top 3 lumbar. insert ribs 8-12 superior: originates C7 through T2 or T3 stabilize vertebral column pull back of ribage down and raise ribcage tendonous
sternocliedomastoid origin: sternum and clavicle heads insert: mastoid process action: lower head, lift ribcage up and back largest in neck superficial
scalene muscles anterior: O: C3-6 I: first rib medial: largest and longest O: C2-7 I: first rib posterior: smallest and deepest O: C5-7 I: second rib inspiratory, help raise first 2 ribs
trapezius most superficial muscle of back flat and triangular covers upper back, neck, shoulders O: base of skull to T12 I: clavicle and scapula (acromion and spine) open chest platform in/exhale to max deg head, scapula, shoulder (shrug)
latissiums dorsi second layer, also superficial O: spine of lower thorasic, lumbar, sacrum, posterior third of iliac crest I: humerus rotate arms and open stable platform (like Trap) tendonous connection
rhomboids major and minor, function as unit O: C7-T5 I: vertebral border of scapula function: draw scapula toward vert (in and up) open ribcage indirect muscle of respiration
levator scapulae under trapezius O: C1-4 I: top of scapula elevate and steady scapulae
pectoralis major fan-shaped bulk of muscle on chest wall O: clavicle, sternum, abdominal apeneurosis I: anterior humerus fascial covering rotation of arm
pectoralis minor O: ribs 2-4/5 near cartilage I: coracoid process shoulder extensor
serratus anterior between ribs and scapula O: ribs 1-8/9 I: scapula (near vert) help lift the lower ribs up and out fixates and protracts the scapula
abdominal apeneurosis broad sheet of tendenous tissue from sternum to pubic bone
linea alba dense, midline of abdominal apeneurosis xiphoid process to pubic symphysis
lumbodorsal fascia tendonous material on back. two-layered
external oblique largest, strongest, most superficial abdominal muscles O: ribs 5-12 I: mostly abdominal apeneurosis (some iliac crest) bend, compress, pull ribcage down, exhalation
internal oblque deep to external obliques and thinner middle layer ascending (opposite of external) O: inguinal ligament, iliac crest, lumbodorsal fascia I: abdominal apeneurosis, ribs 8/9-12 pulls ribcage down and back exhalation
transversus abdominus deepest abdominals horizontal (Like cummerbund) O: inner surface of ribs 6-12, lumbodorsal fascia, interior 2/3 iliac crest, inguinal ligament I: abdominal aponeurosis mostly, also pubic bone compression exhalation
rectus abdominus O: pubic crest I: ribs 5-7 (cartilage) , xiphoid process keeps guts in, helps exhalation (pushes diaphragm)
quadratus lumborum posterior abdominal muscle O: iliac crest I: transverse processes of lumbar vertibrae, crest of ilium pulls ribcage down (exhalation)
total lung capacity the quantity of air the lungs are capable of holding at the height of a maximum inhalation Factors: 1) body size, 2) position of the body 3) health of the organism
vital capacity the quantity of air that can be exhaled after as deep an inhalation as possible Factors: 1) anatomical build 2) position of body during measurement 3) strength of respiratory musculature 4) pulmonic compliance or the distensibilibility of the pulmonic-tho
inspiratory capacity the max vol of air that can be inhaled from a resting expiratory level can be measured directly with a spirometer
tidal volume vol of air inhaled and exhaled in one expiratory cycle
minute volume the vol of air exchanged per minute. (500-750cc of air)
residual volume vol of air that remains in the lungs even after a max exhalation
Created by: mdcooper



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