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Chapter 7

Cell and Cell parts

TermDefinition
CELL Basic unit of structure and organization of all living organisms
CELL THEORY states that (1) organisms are made of one or more cells; (2)cells are the basic unit of life; (3) all cells come from other cells
PLASMA (CELL) MEMBRANE flexible, selectively permeable boundary that helps control what enters and leaves the cell
ORGANELLE specialized internal cell structure that carries out specific cell functions such as protein synthesis and energy transformation
EUKARYOTIC CELL unicellular organism with membrane-bound nucleus and organelles; generally larger and more complex than a prokaryotic cell
NUCLEUS in eukaryotic cells, the central membrane-bound organelle that manages cellular functions and contains DNA
PROKARYOTIC CELL microscopic, unicellular organism without a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
CYTOPLASM semi-fluid material inside the cell's plasma (cell) membrane
CYTOSKELETON supporting network of protein fibers that provide a framework for the cell within the cytoplasm
RIBOSOME simple cell organelle that helps manufacture proteins
NUCLEOLUS the site of ribosome production within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM highly folded membrane system in eukaryotic cells that is the site for protein and lipid synthesis (production)
GOLGI APPARATUS (BODY) flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins into vesicles an transports them to other organelles or out of the cell
VACUOLE membrane-bound vesicle for temporary storage of materials such as food, enzymes and wastes
CENTRIOLE organelle that plays a role in cell division and is made of micrtotubules
MITOCHONDRION membrane-bound organelle that converts fuel into energy that is available to the rest of the cell
CHLOROPLAST double-membrane organelle that captures light energy and converts it to chemical energy through photosynthesis
CELL WALL in plants, the rigid barrier that surrounds the outside of the plasma membrane, is made of cellulose, and provides support and protection to the cell
CILIUM short, hairlike projection that functions in cell movement
FLAGELLUM long, tail-like projection with whip-like or propeller motion that helps a cell move
ION atom that is negatively or positively charged because it has lost or gained one or more electrons
SELECTIVELY PERMEABLE property of the plasma (cell) membrane that allows it to control movements of substances into or out of the cell
PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYER plasma (cell) membrane layers composed of phospholipid molecules arranged with polar heads facing the outside and non-polar tails facing the inside
TRANSPORT PROTEIN protein that moves substances or wastes through the plasma (cell) membrane
FLUID MOSAIC MODEL a plasma (cell) membrane with components constantly in motion, sliding past one another within the lipid bi-layer
HOMEOSTASIS regulation of an organism's internal environment to maintain conditions needed for life
DIFFUSION net movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM condition of continuous random movement of particles but no overall changes in concentration of materials
FACILITATED DIFFUSION passive transport of ions and small molecules across the plasma (cell) membrane by transport proteins
ISOTONIC SOLUTION a solution with the same concentration of water and solutes as inside the cell, resulting in the cell retaining its normal shape because there is no net movement of water
OSMOSIS diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
HYPOTONIC SOLUTION a solution that has a lower concentration of solute outside than inside the cell, causing water to flow into the cell by osmosis
HYPERTONIC SOLUTION a solution that has a higher concentration of solute outside than inside a cell, causing water to leave the cell by osmosis
ACTIVE TRANSPORT energy-requiring process by which substances move across the plasma (cell) membrane against a concentration gradient
ENDOCYTOSIS energy-requiring process by which large substances from the outside environment can enter a cell
Created by: MsQuinnScience