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Unit 4 Genetics

Genetics

TermDefinition
Trait A characteristic of an organism.
Genetics Pertaining to DNA, the hereditary material.
Gene A section of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a particular trait.
Allele
Homozygous
Heterozygous
Genotype
Phenotype
Karyotyping The process by which an individual's chromosomes are examined by looking at enlarged images of them arranged on a grid according to size.
RNA or Messenger Molecule An RNA molecule with a specific code for a polypeptide. This code is determined by the sequence of bases of the DNA molecule in the nucleus.
Restriction Enzyme
Gel Electrophoresis A method used to separate DNA fragments on the basis of their size.
DNA Fingerprinting
Clone A genetically identical organism.
Genetic Engineering The process which transfers genes to another organisms DNA resulting in recombinant DNA.
Recombinant DNA The DNA of an organism that has been changed, usually by the addition of a gene.
Genetic screening
Gene Therapy
segment
sequence
amniocentesis A procedure that removes amniotic fluid containing fetal cells for analysis to determine the presence of genetic defects.
autosomes Chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes.
chromosome A structure found in the cell nucleus that is made of DNA and protein. It contains the hereditary information.
cloning The production of genetically identical organisms.
crossing-over The equal exchange of genetic material by homologous chromosomes during the synapsis of meiosis.
deletion A chromosomal abnormality in which a portion of the chromosome has been lost.
diploid The 2n number that is the normal number of chromosomes for a particular species. The human diploid number is 46.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) The nucleic acid that stores the hereditary information or genetic material. It is made of repeating units called nucleotides.
double helix The shape of the DNA molecule, the spiral shape formed by the parallel strands.
gene mutation Any change in the sequence of bases in DNA.
heredity The sum total of genetically inherited characteristics which are passed from parents to offspring.
homologous chromosomes A pair of chromosomes of the same size and shape that carry genes for the same trait.
independent assortment Different traits that are carried on different chromosomes are inherited independently from one another.
insertion A mutation that is caused by the placement of a DNA nucleotide into an existing gene.
mutagenic agents Any substance that can change the structure of the DNA, causing a mutation.
mutation A change in the genetic material.
peptide A small chain of amino acids.
protein An organic compound made of amino acids.
replication The copying of the exact base sequence of the DNA.
sex determination In humans, the male determines the sex. XX is female while XY is male.
synthesis A chemical process in which small molecules are joined make large molecules.
translocation The transfer of a section of one chromosome to a chromosome with which it is not homologous
adenine A nitrogenous base found in both DNA and RNA. It pairs with thymine in DNA, but pairs with uracil when RNA is synthesized.
cytosine A nitrogenous base found in both DNA and RNA. It pairs with guanine.
guanine A nitrogenous base found in both DNA and RNA. It pairs with cytosine.
recombination The formation of new combinations of genes which can be the result of crossing-over during meiosis.
sex chromosomes The pair of genes that determines the sex of the individual, with XX being female and XY being mal
substitution The replacement of one nitrogenous base for another nitrogenous base.
technology The practical application of scientific discoveries.thymine
thymine A nitrogenous base found in DNA but not in RNA. It pairs with adenine.
biotechnology The use of recombinant DNA and genetic engineering in biological science.
inherited Coming from ancestors
genome all of an organism's genetic material (DNA)
Created by: Dr. Lamont