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genetics review

chapter 10 and 11 Genetics

Example of homozygous dominant genotype for a single trait homozygous dominant should be two capital letters ( AA, etc)
The passage of traits from one generation to the next is called____, the science of this is called _____ inheritance or heredity..... the science is genetics
In a genetics problem, if a red organism mates with another red organisms and only produce red organisms ... they are called _______ ( two terms are possible) pure-breeding or true-breeding
What is the abbreviation or shorthand for the offspring of a genetic cross.... 1st set, 2nd set etc F1 , F2 etc
What does this statement tell you: pure yellow peas x pure green peas produce yellow offspring this statement tells you that yellow is dominant and the legend should be a capital letter for the dominant trait and its lowercase letter for the recessive trait
How many factors are needed to produce one trait and how many factors per trait are given to your offspring through the gametes 2 factors per trait ( one from each parent)... and each parent passes one gene per trait to their offspring
Mendel's factors are now called ? or ? genes or alleles
Various forms of genes (such as Y= yellow and y= green) are called ____. alleles
This refers to P_________X_________ the parents
The form of a gene that may mask or cover up another gene... and the form that may be covered up dominant ( shown with a capital letter) and recessive ( shown with a lowercase letter that is the same as the dominant letter)
Which pair of chromosomes are not homologous... one of the chromosomes is shorter and doesn't have all l of the matching genes that is found on its partner chromosome X and Y chromosomes ( sex chromosomes of a male)
Name two sex-linked recessive human disorders hemophilia and colorblindness
The only way for a recessive trait to show up in an organism two recessive genes... to be homozygous recessive
What is Mendel's law of Segregation when the gametes are formed the two genes for the trait separate so the gamete has one for each trait... when fertilization occurs the genes for the traits combine in new combinations in the offspring
Give an example of homozygous and heterozygous using A's homozygous is AA or aa and heterozygous is Aa
Another term for heterozygous hybrid
AaBb would be described as an organism's genotype
How many traits would be in this description AaBBcc 3 ( 2 genes per trait)
The outward expression of an organism's allele or gene pairs is known as the organisms _________ phenotype
the best way to determine a dog's phenotype look at it
What type of single trait cross gives a phenotype ratio of approximately 3/4 dominant to 1/4 recessive offspring a monohybrid cross
Who are the parents of a cross that yields 78 yellow peas and 30 green peas ( approximate the ratio to figure this out ... also use Y= yellow and y= green Yy x Yy ( a monohybrid cross)
what kind of gametes are produced by an organisms described as Aa it can produce A OR a
When does Mendel's law of independent assortment occur.. What is this law about... when you have two traits and the genes are located on separate chromosome pairs ( not the same pair).. the law says that the gene pairs (A's and B's ) will not interfer with each other when they make gametes...
Because of independent assortment ( the A's and B's ) can sort in more combinations and you use a little math trick known as _____ to get all the combinations F.O.I.L
What possible gametes are possible from AaBb AB , Ab, aB, and ab
In a dihybrid cross how many offspring do you expect to have both dominant traits like the parents 9/16
In a dihybrid cross how many offspring do you expect to have one dominant trait and one recessive trait... either 1st trait dominant, 2nd trait recessive ... or switched 1st trait recessive,2nd trait dominant 3/16
in a dihybrid cross how many offspring are expected to have both recessive traits 1/16
What numbers to do want to know for the phenotype ratio of a dihybrid cross ( be sure to know the descriptions also) 9:3:3:1
What is located inside the boxes of a punnett square the genotypes of the offspring that result from the ferilizations of the possible gametes... from the genotypes you can describe the phenotypes
What does one of the letters located on the outside of the punnett square represent.... if the parent was Aa one of the letters would be A the gene in the gamete representing the law of segregation and the process of meiosis
What name is given to inherited characteristics traits
To fill out the outside of the punnett square what mendel law and process needs to be taken into account mendels law of segregation and the process of meiosis... You need to divide the information in the genotype into half of the information ( 1 gene per trait)
What are small sections of DNA on chromosomes that code for specific proteins that cause the traits genes
The information inside the punnett square are the outcome of the genetic cross. Are these results predicted or what will actually happen? the information inside the punnett square is predicted or expected... actual results come from randome fertilization of any egg and any sperm in the person
How can you get actual results closer to expected results in genetic experiments or research be sure to have a large sample size
what is the more traditional name for trisomy 21 down syndrome
which condition in humans is more common in people of african descent and the heterozygous condition makes the person more resistant to malaria sickle-cell anemia
How is sickle cell anemia inherited and what are the various phenotypes that are possible it is codominant (rather than a recessive disorder).. 3 possiblities exist... sickle cell anemia ( all of their blood cells are cresent moon shaped)... sickle cell trait ( both normal RBC's and cresent moon shaped) and normal ( all normal RBC's)
Name two diseases that are recessive sex-linked hemophilia and red-green colorblindness
Which sex is more likely to show a recessive sex-linked trait and which sex is the carrier for this disease males are more likely to show condition .... and the female is the carrier to their sons ( they give their son the X chromosome)
What type of chromosomes are found in a karyotype of a human and how many pairs of each there are 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes.
Who determines the gender of the offspring and explain how this occurs the male... he has an X and Y chromosome so if he gives the child an X the result is a girl... if he give a Y the result is a male ( 50/50 chance of getting a boy or girl with each pregnancy)
What is nondisjunction and what type of chromosomes does this genetic error occur in... this is what happens when the chromosomes do not separate properly during meiosis results in extra or missing chromosomes in the individual. ... it happens in autosomes or sex chromosomes
What type of twins are more useful when studying the effects of the environment on various human traits identical twins ( formed when one zygote split early in development to make two organisms with the same genotype)...fraternal twins are just two eggs that got fertilized at the same time ( they have same relationship as other sibs)
Which genetic disorder is recessive, more common in jewish people of eastern european descent, and causes a decline in the nervous system and death by age 5 Tay-Sachs
What is the 2 major things you would look for in a recessive pedigree.. it may skip generations... but you want to look for two unaffected parents having an affected child
What term describes a person that is heterozygous for a recessive or sex-linked condition. This person does not show the trait but they can pass the defective gene onto their children( in sex-linked conditions this person is a female) carrier
A pure white mouse is mated with a brown mouse. Only brown mice are produced.... what does this tell you about the white mouse the white mouse is homozygous recessive
in chickens..rose come is dominant to single comb..(R= rose r= single ) a homozygous rose comb rooster is mated with a single combed hen... they are the P1 ... what is their genotype and what are the F1 RR x rr produces Rr they are all rose combed
R= rose comb and r= single comb... when the F1 mate with each other (now P2) Rr x Rr what are the resulting offspring expected to be you would expect the F2 to be 3/4 rose comb and 1/4 single comb
A true-breeding tall pea plant is crossed with a true-breeding short pea plant and all the offspring are tall ( what is the most likely genotype of the offspring) use T's upper and lower case Tt
In mice, black is dominant to white.. two black mice are crossed and they produce 2 black offspring and one white offspring. What does this tell you about the black parents the black parents are heterozygous ... they each had to give the white offspring a recessive gene
It two heterozygous individuals are crossed , what percent of the offspring are expected to be heterozygous 50%
In Horses R= running and r= waltzing...2nd trait B= black and b= brown ... if the genetic cross produced approximately 9/16 running, black horses 3/16 running, brown 3/16 waltzing, black and 1/16 waltzing, brown...what are the parents genotypes RrBb x RrBb ( a dihybrid cross)
What gametes are produced by this individual AaBb AB, Ab, aB, ab
Who developed some ideas of genetics. Traits depend on 2 factors( one from mother, one from father)..these factors can be dominant or recessive, the factors separate when gametes are made... and two traits generally do not interfer with each other Gregor Mendel
What describes a photograph of homologous chromosomes arranged in pairs from largest to smallest and showing the sex chromosomes. This photograph is helpful to determine genetic disorders involving chromosomes karyotype
In rabbits, G= gray g= white B- black eyes and b- red eyes.. give the phenotype of a rabbit that is heterozygous for hair color and shows the recessive trait for eye color It is a gray rabbit with red eyes
What is the phenotype of an individual that has a genotype consisting of a dominant and recessive allele it looks like the phenotype of the other dominant individuals ( the dominant gene overpowers the recessive gene)
What is the purpose of a test cross it is used to determine the genotype of a dominant individual that could be homozygous or heterozygous
What type of organisms are used in a test cross ( give an example using A's) A? ( either homozygous or heterozygous) x aa ( recessive organism)
In a test cross ... what do you know if your genetic cross yields some recessive individuals you know that the dominant parent is heterozygous because he had to give a recessive gene to the offspring and the recessive parent also gave a recessive gene... You can be 100% sure if this happens
In a test cross... if you determine that the dominant parent is homozygous ( because none of the offspring are recessive)...Are you 100% certain ? explain you cannot be 100 % certain... a large sample size could make you a little more certain... but the next offspring could be recessive and then you would know they are heterozygous... not homozygous
What could have caused these chromosome disorders or conditions XXX, XYY, XXY, X, 21/21/21, nondisjunction
A man who is albino marries a women that is normal pigmented BUT who had an albino father .. What are the parents in this cross A= normal pigment a= albino aa x Aa ( you know the women is Aa because she has normal pigment A but her father had to be aa and had to give her a small a
Name the recessive t genetic disorders that you should know a short description of and how to use them in a problem cystic fibrosis, tay-sachs, albinism
recessive disease more common in caucasions where there is an issue with a transport protein in membranes that causes very thick mucus and respiratory and digestive issues. They can determine carriers.. better treatments now but no cure cystic fibrosis
Name the dominant disorders that you should be able to work with in genetic problems ( also know brief descriptions) Huntington's, Achondroplasia, and Polydacytly
What two types of genetic problems need to use two different capital letters for a legend such as B, W and BW for the hybrid or heterozygous organism incomplete dominance and codominance
What type of inheritance is happening when pure curly hair individuals mated with pure straight hair individuals produces individuals with wavy hair invomplete dominance
What are the possible genotypes of a male with the sex-linked trait called hemophilia XH Y ( normal) and XhY ( hemophilia) males cannot be carriers
The chances of ? increases as the mother's age increases ..because nondisjunction may happen more often down syndrome ( be able to give a brief description)
What is very special about the onset of Huntington's disease? it doesn't appear until the person with the dominant gene is 30 to 50 years old
How is hemophilia connected to history Queen Victoria ( 1800's) was the first carrier in a disease that affected the royal families of england,spain, russia, and germany.. It spread through the families because of marriages because of close relatives
In cattle red x white can produce animals that are called roan with red and white hairs very next to each other ... the colors of hairs are coexisting,, this inheritance is called codominance
If a father and son are both hemophiliacs. But the mother is normal HER genotype must be XHXh
two examples of nondisjunction... one is missing a chromosome and the other has an extra chromosome monosomy and trisomy
Created by: shemehl



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