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DNA & Biotechnology

Function of rRNA Is in the ribosome for site of translation, reads the codons on mRNA
Function of tRNA Carries amino acids to the ribosomes
Function of mRNA carries the generic information from DNA in the form of codons (nucleotide sequence)
During DNA replication, what two processes must occur before the two strands of a DNA can separate? 1.) Hydrogen bonds between base pairs must be broken 2.) Molecule must unwind
3 parts of RNA nucleotide 1.) Ribose molecule 2.) A phosphate group 3.) Nitrogenous Base
What must happen to the DNA molecule before RNA polymerase can make RNA? The DNA must be separated into two strands
What would happen if codons consisted of fewer than 3 bases? The bases could not combine in enough ways to produce codons for specifying the 20 different amino acids
Mule=Donkey+Horse. What can you conclude about the characteristics of the mule? Some donk dink donk dink, some horse characteristics
How are selective breeding techniques of hybridization and inbreeding opposites? Hybridization= organisms with different traits crossed (donk dink donk dink + horse = mule) Inbreeding= organisms with similar traits are crossed (purebred doggies)
What is a POLYPLOID organism? Organism that has many sets of chromosomes
Why would breeders want to increase a population’s mutation rate? It increases the chances of individuals within the population having desirable traits, which then can be selected for using breeding techniques
What is the likely effect of treating a sample of DNA with more than one kind of restriction enzyme? More DNA fragments of different sizes
What does polymerase chain reaction enable scientists to make? Many copies of a gene
What is the significance of sticky ends? They allow the fragment to be inserted into a piece of DNA that has the same sticky ends. (They can STICK to another DNA!)
What’s a plasmid? Circular DNA molecule that scientists use to transform bacteria and plants
How can gel electrophoresis be used to tell whether a transformation experiment was successful? You can compare banding patterns of DNA samples taken before and after
What is a transgenic organism? An organism produced by genetic engineering that contains genes from another kind of organism
Why do transgenic bacteria that have the gene for human insulin produce insulin in great abundance? Bacteria reproduce quickly, so the more transgenic bacteria there are, the more insulin produced
Why does the human insulin gene produce the same protein in humans and in transgenic bacteria? The gene determines what protein is produced, not the organism in which it is found.
Compare the sexes of an animal clone and the animal from which it was cloned. Explain your answer. They are always the same sex because they are genetically identical.
Why might different alleles of the same gene produce different fragments when treated with the same restriction enzyme? 1.) different DNA sequences that include different numbers of copies of the enzyme’s recognition site 2.) different locations of the recognition site within the allele
Why do scientists use sections of DNA that have little or no known function to do DNA fingerprinting? These sections of DNA vary widely from person to person
Why are viruses used in gene therapy? They can transfer genes into human cells
Created by: awilson21