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Biology chapt 5

Biology chapter 5

fluid -mosaic model Model for the plasma membrane based on the changing location and pattern of protein molecules in a fluid phospholipid bilayer.
glycolipid Lipid in plasma membranes that contains an attached carbohydrate chain; assembled in the Golgi apparatus.
glycoprotein Protein in plasma membranes that has an attached carbohydrate chain; assembled in the Golgi apparatus.
channel protein Protein that forms a channel to allow a particular molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane.
carrier protein Protein in the plasma membrane that combines with and transports a molecule or an ion across the plasma membrane.
cell recognition protein Glycoproteins in the plasma membrane that identify self and help the body defend itself against pathogens.
receptor protein Proteins located in the plasma membrane or within the cell; bind to a substance that alters some metabolic aspect of the cell.
enzymatic protein Protein that catalyzes a specific reaction; may be found in the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm of the cell.
junction protein Protein in the cell membrane that assists in cell-to-cell communication.
selectively permeable Property of the plasma membrane that allows some substances to pass but prohibits the movement of others.
concentration gradient Gradual change in chemical concentration between two areas of differing concentrations.
aquaporin Channel protein through which water can diffuse across a membrane.
bulk transport Movement of substances, usually large particles, across the plasma membrane using vesicles.
diffusion Movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher to lower concentration; it requires no energy and tends to lead to an equal distribution (equilibrium).
solution Fluid (the solvent) that contains a dissolved solid (the solute).
solute Substance that is dissolved in a solvent, forming a solution.
solvent Liquid portion of a solution that dissolves a solute.
osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
osmotic pressure Measure of the tendency of water to move across a selectively permeable membrane; visible as an increase in liquid on the side of the membrane with higher solute concentration.
isotonic solution Solution that is equal in solute concentration to that of the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to neither lose nor gain water by osmosis
tonicity The structure that transmits the genetic material from one generation to the next; composed of condensed chromatin; each species has a particular number of chromosomes that is passed on to the next generation.
hypotonic solution Solution that contains a lower-solute (more water) concentration than the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to gain water by osmosis.
Hemolysis Is the term used to describe cytolysis in red blood cells.
turgor pressure Pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall; in plant cells, determined by the water content of the vacuole; provides internal support.
hypertonic solution Higher-solute concentration (less water) than the cytoplasm of a cell; causes cell to lose water by osmosis.
crenation In animal cells, shriveling of the cell due to water leaving the cell when the environment is hypertonic.
plasmolysis Contraction of the cell contents due to the loss of water.
facilitated transport Passive transfer of a substance into or out of a cell along a concentration gradient by a process that requires a protein carrier.
active transport Use of a plasma membrane carrier protein to move a molecule or an ion from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration; it opposes equilibrium and requires energy.
sodium-potassium pump Carrier protein in the plasma membrane that moves sodium ions out of and potassium ions into cells; important in the function of nerve and muscle cells in animals.
exocytosis Process in which an intracellular vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane, so that the vesicle’s contents are released outside the cell.
endocytosis Process by which substances are moved into the cell from the environment; includes phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis.
phagocytosis Process by which cells engulf large substances, forming an intracellular vacuole.
pinocytosis Process by which vesicle formation brings macromolecules into the cell.
receptor-mediated endocytosis Selective uptake of molecules into a cell by vacuole formation after they bind to specific receptor proteins in the plasma membrane.
extracellular matrix (ECM) Nonliving substance secreted by some animal cells; is composed of protein and polysaccharides.
adhesion junction Junction between cells in which the adjacent plasma membranes do not touch but are held together by intercellular filaments attached to buttonlike thickenings.
tight junction Junction between cells when adjacent plasma membrane proteins join to form an impermeable barrier.
gap junction Junction between cells formed by the joining of two adjacent plasma membranes; it lends strength and allows ions, sugars, and small molecules to pass between cells.
cell wall Cellular structure that surrounds a plant, protistan, fungal, or bacterial cell and maintains the cell’s shape and rigidity; composed of polysaccharides.
plasmodesmata In plants, cytoplasmic connections in the cell wall that connect two adjacent cells.
Created by: Haleyannestes