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Meiosis I+II + Vocab

Decribe heredity. Passing of traits from parents to offspring.
Genetics Branch of biology that studies heredity.
Monohybrid Cross A cross that considers one pair of contrasting traits. i.e. punnett square to determine the hair color of the offspring of two parents who have heterozygous genes.
True-breeding All the offspring display only one form of a particular trait.
P Generation First two individuals crossed in a breeding experiment.
F1 Generation Offspring of the P Generation.
F2 Generation Offspring of the F1 Generation.
Alleles Different versions of a gene.
Dominant A factor that masks another form of a trait.
Recessive Not expressed when the dominant form of teh trait is present.
Homozygous When the two alleles of a particular gene are the same.
Heterozygous The alleles of a particular gene that are different.
Genotype Set of alleles that an individual has.
Phenotype The physical appearance of an organism.
Law of Segregation The tow alleles for a trait spererate when gametes are formed.
Law of Independent Assortment The alleles of different genes sperate independently of one another during gamete formation.
Trait Genetically determined variant of a characteristic.
Dihybrid Cross A cross that considers two pairs of contrasting traits. i.e. hair color and texture form both parents ad tracking hte results in both parents.
Punnett Square A diagram that predicts the outcomes of a genetic cross.
Test Cross A cross of homozygous recessive individual with an individual with a dominant phenotype of unknown genotype.
Probablity The likelihood that a specific event will occur.
Genotypic Ratio A fraction of genotypes that appear in offspring.
Complete Dominance When heterozygous plants and homozygous dominant plants have the same phenotype .
Incomplete Dominance When an individual displays a trait that is intermediate between two parents.
Codominance When both alleles for a trait are expressed in a heterozygous individual.
Phenotypic Ratio Fraction of phenotypes that appear in offspring.
Pollination Occurs between flowers of two different plants.
Molecular Genetics Study of the structure ans function of chromosomes and genes
Self-pollination When pollen grains are transferred to the stigma.
Oogenesis The production of mature egg cells of ova.
Tetrad A pair of homologous chromosomes lined up next to each other during prophase I of meiosis.
Independent Assortment The random seperation of homologous chromosomes during anaphase I of meiosis.
Polar Bodies Haploid offspring cells produced by meiosis during oogenesis.
During synapsis, the... Chromosomes line up next to their homologues.
During crossing-over, portions of the chromatids... Break off and attach to adjacent chromatids on the homologous chromosome.
In which phase of mwiosis do tetrads form? Prophase I
What does Meiosis II do? It seperates chromatids into opposite poles of the cell.
In oogenesis, a diploid reproductive cell divides meiotically to produce... One haploid gamete.
What is Meiosis? The process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus. It results in the production of sex cells.
What is synapsis? The pairing of homologous chromosomes during Meiosis.
What is crossing-over in meiosis? The exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes.
What is a tetrad made of? A tetrad is made of 4 chromatids in a pair of homologous chromosomes that come together durign meiosis.
What is a gamete? A haploid cell, such as a sperm of egg cell, which participates in fertilization by fusing with another haploid cell.
What is the process of Spermatogenesis? The process by which male gametes form; male gametes are sperm. It produces 4 sperm cells.
What is the process of Oogenesis? The production, growth, and maturation of an egg or ovum. Produces 1 egg cell and 3 polar bodies.
What is sexual reproduction? The genetic material from more than one parent combine to produce offspring.
What are some traits of diploid cells? -Body cells -Chromosomes in pairs -2N 46 chromosomes -Mitosis
What are some traits of haploid cells? -sex cells -No pairs -1N -23 chromosomes -Meiosis
What are some traits of alleles? -A gene for a trait -Dominant -Recessive -Pairs of alleles are found on homologous chromosomes
What are homologous chromosomes? -Pairs of chromosomes that have genes for the same traits. -Each parent gives one chromosome of each pair to offspring.
What happens in the process of crossing-over in prophase I? -Synapsis -when homologous pairs line up -Pairs from tetrads exchange alleles -Produces variation
What is Meiosis I? The seperation of chromosome pairs.
What is Meiosis II? The seperation of chromatids from the seperated chromosomes in meiosis I.
Created by: SKennedy1



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