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Ch. 3 Prokaryotes

Microbiology Dr. Cooper

QuestionAnswer
two groups that are classified as prokaryotes bacteria and archaea
Bacteria(ium) specific name to the Bacteria
common features of prokaryotes lack internal membrane systems (exceptions); plasma (cell membrane; cell wall; cytoplasm; layers outside the cell wall
most common shapes of prokaryotes rods and cocci
cocci spherical
diplococci two spherical cells
streptococci chain of cocci
staphylococci cluster "grape-like" of cocci
tetrads squares of four cells
sarcinae packet of eight cells (cubical)
bacilli rod shaped cells
streptobacillus chain of rods
coccobacilli very short rods
vibrio curved, comma like rods
spirilla rigid helices
spirochetes flexible helices
network of long, multinucleate filaments mycelium
organisms that are variable in shape pleomorphic
point of contact with cells environment; requirement for living; high protein content; fulfills functions or organelles usually associated with eukaryotic cells plasma membranes
what are the functions of the plasma membrane? encompasses the cytoplasm; selectively permeable barrier; interacts with external environment
how does the plasma membrane interact with the environment? receptors respond to chemicals; transport systems; and respiration, photosynthesis, lipid and cell-wall biosynthesis
peripheral membrane proteins loosely connected to membrane and easily removed
integral plasma membrane carry out important functions; amphipathic (embedded in membrane)
bacterial membranes lack sterols but contain a sterol-like molecules called what? hopanoids
what are hopanoids stabilize membrane and are found in petroleum
required in significant amounts and the lack of can limit growth macroelements
examples of macroelements C,O,H,N,S,P
required in minute amounts; usually do not limit growth microelements
examples of microelements Mn, Zn, Co, Mo, Ni, Cu
what are the three types of growth factor amino acids, purines and pyrimidines, and vitamins
small organic compounds that make up all or part or enzyme cofactors vitamins
molecules move freely from and area of high concentration to low due to random thermal energy passive diffusion
the use of special transport proteins (permeases) to move larger molecules from high to low ; no energy required facilitated transport
type of transport protein; CHANNEL form pores through the membrane for molecules to pass
type of transport proteins; CARRIERS active transport in which molecules transported across membrane
all permeases are bound with molecules saturated process (facilitated diffusion)
energy dependent in which molecules are moved against conc. gradient; requires membrane bound carrier protein; input of ATP active transport
driven by ATP hydrolysis; uniporter process(moves a single molecule); ABC transporters common; solute binding protein that binds the molecule then interacts with transporter protein primary active transport
ion gradient driven; 3 types: uniport (single molecule), symport(same direction), and antiport (opposite direction) secondary active transport
energy dependent system; molecules are chemically altered; prokaryotes and not eukaryotes group translocations
iron binding molecule that help microbes (pro and eukaryotic) uptake iron. siderophores
once iron is reduced to ferrous the siderophore is recycled true
two types of siderophores hydroxamates and phenolates-catecholates
rigid structure that lies outside the cell membrane bacterial cell wall
functions of the bacterial cell wall maintain shape; protect cell from osmotic lysis; protect from toxic materials; pathogenicity; site for action of antibiotics
stained purple and has a thick layer of peptidoglycan Gram positive
stain pink or red and has a thin layer or peptidoglycan Gram negative
what determines if the cell is Gram positive or negative the cell wall
mesh like polymer of identical subunits forming long strands; helical; cross linked by peptides for strength peptidoglycan
found in Gram positive; maintain cell envelope; bind to host cells; protects from environment teichoic acid
between plasma membrane and cell wall and is smaller than that found in Gram neg bacteria; few proteins periplasmic space
Gram negative bacterial cell wall complex; thin layer of peptidoglycan; composed of lipids, lipoproteins, and no teichoic acids
part of the cell wall outter membrane; three parts: lipid A, O side chain, and core polysaccharide lipopolysaccharide LPS
LPS functions neg. charge on cell surface, stablabize outter membrane, permeable barrier, protection from host defenses, act as endo toxcin
Gram Stain mechanism on Gram positive cells decolorization causes shrinkage of pores prevent the loss of crystal violet
Gram stain mechanism on Gram negative cells decolorization causes partly dissolved membrane and and does not prevent the loss of crystal violet
solute concentration outside cell is less than inside cell; water moves into cell, swells, and cell wall protects from lysis hypotonic environments
solute concentration outside cell is greater than inside; water leaves cell, plasmolysis occurs hypertonic environments
layer consisting of a network of polysaccharides that may aid in attachment to solid surfaces glycocalyx
resistant to phagocytosis, protect from digestion, well organized, capsule
similar to capsules except diffuse, unorganized and easily removed, aid in motility slime layer
made of proteins not peptidoglycan, a sheath, S-layers
plasma membrane and everything within protoplast
material bounded by the plasma membrane (cytoskeleton, intracytoplasmix membranes, inclusions, ribosomes, nucleoid and plasmids) cytoplasm
FtsZ found in many bacteria, forms rings during septum formation in cell division
found in many rods, helps maintain shape by positioning peptidoglycan synthesis machinery Mre/MBI
helps maintain shape of particular bacteria CreS
organic and inorganic material stored for future use in the cell inclusions
What do inclusions store? nutrients, metabolic end products, energy, building blocks, carbon, phosphate, amino acids
found in aquatic bacteria, magnetic field magnetsosomes
ribososmes of bacterial cells smaller than eukaryotic, consist of protein and RNA, sites for protein synthesis
chromosomes located here nucleoid
nucleoid is not membrane bound true
what coils the Chromosome RNA and non-histone proteins
extrachromosomal DNA, typically small, closed circular DNA molecules plasmids
short hair like appendages, used for attachment to surfaces, not involved in motility fimbriae
not involved in motility, similar to fimbriae (synonyms) hollow tubes of protein subunit, required for bacteria mating pili
long, slender rigid structures used for motility flagella
located at the polar end monotrichous
located at both polar ends amphitrichous
multiple flagella at one end lophotrichous
surround the whole surface peritrichous
flagella 3 parts: filament, basal body. hook
filament of a flagella hollow tube of protein
basal body of a flagella embedded in membrane
hook of flagella links filament to basal body
flagella flow toward food stuffs and away from harmful things chemotaxis
usually involves bacteria with peritichous flagella that also secrete molecules that help movement across a surface swarming
multiple flagella form axial fibril, coorckscrew, flaxing and spinning movements, move through water spirochete motility
resistant dormant structure formed by some gram positive bacteria, highly resistant to heat, UV light, Gamma radiation, Disinfectants, desiccation bacterial endospores
still do not know hwy endospores are so resistant true
how do endospores come to be growth ceases due to lack of nutrients, 10 hours, seven stages,
activation, germination, outgrowth 3 steps to go from endospore to vegatative cell
Created by: aljayne