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Exam 1

What is the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species Phylogeny
The discipline of ________ classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships systematics
What is the ordered division and naming of organisms Taxonomy
What are groups that share an immediate common ancestor Sister taxa
What is a group of species that include an ancestral species and all its descendants Clade
What is a species or group of species that is closely related to the ingroup, the various species being studied outgroup
The tree that requires the fewest evolutionary events (appearances of shared derived characters) is the most likely. What is this called? maximum parsimony
Given "rules" about how DNA changes over time, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events. What is this principle called? maximum likelihood
What is the process in which a unicellular organism engulfs other cells endosymbiosis
The process in which an unicellular organism who has already undergone endosymbiosis, does the same again down the line secondary endosymbiosis
Fungi consists of ________, which are networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption mycelia
Most fungi have cell walls made of ________ chitin
Which fungi lack septa that allows cell-to-cell movement ? Coenocytic fungi
Fungi use what for reproduction ? pheromones
Which fungi form sheaths of hyphae over a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex Ectomycorrhizal fungi
Which fungi extend hyphae through the cell walls of root cells and into tubes formed by invagination of the root cell membrane Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
______________ and _____________ are unique to animals Nervous and muscle tissue
What is the rapid cell division that a zygote undergoes cleavage
Forming a grastrula with different layers of embryonic tissues is called: gastrulation
What was the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of extant crittters caused by Cambrian explosion
What is the germ layer that covers the embryo's surface Ectoderm
What is the innermost germ layer that lines the developing digestive tube Endoderm
What is the developing digestive tube called archenteron
What type of animals have both ectoderm and endoderm tissue layers diploblastic
What are cnidarians and comb jellies an example of diploblastic animals
These have no body cavity surrounding the gut Acoelomates
These have a body cavity that is not lined by peritoneum (thin membrane) Pseudocoelomates
What is an example of a pseudocoelomate nematodes
These have a body cavity lined by a peritoneum Eucoelomates
These people use fossil, molecular, and genetic data to infer evolutionary relationships Systematists
What is the taxonomic unit at any level of hierarchy Taxon
These are hypotheses about evolutionary relationships phylogenetic trees
What is similarity due to shared ancestry Homology
What is similarity due to convergent evolution Analogy
This assumes constant changes ML
This allows for rapid changes and slow periods MP
DNA that codes for rRNA changes relatively _______ and is useful for investigating branching points hundreds of millions of years ago slowly
This is the least variable gene in all cells rRNA
_________ evolves rapidly and can be used to explore recent evolutionary events mtDNA
When did the HIV strain spread to humans 1930s
This has crossed over from chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys to humans at least eleven times, giving rise to several HIV lineages SIV
What two SIVs trace back to an SIV that infected red-capped mangabeys and in greater spot-nosed monkeys SIV-AGM & SIVMM
This strain passed into humans around 1940 and the other in 1945 HIV-2 (A and B)
The HIV virus originated where ? Guinea-Bissau
Where did the zika virus originate from Ziika Forest, Uganda
When did the zika virus have a narrow belt spread in Africa 1950s-2007
when did the zika virus have a westward spread 2007-2015
When did the outbreak in South America began that brought zika to the United States 2015-2016
What three-domain systems have recently been adopted Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
This causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans (PAM) Naegleria fowleri (Excavata)
This recently dropped kingdom includes mostly unicellular eukaryotes Protists
These are clades that include the ancestral species and some of its descendants Paraphyletic
They exhibit more structural & functional diversity than any other group of eukaryotes Protists
What type of protist causes malaria Plasmodium
A dinoflagellate that causes fish kills Pfesteria shumwayae
This causes sudden oak death Phytophthora ramorum
These are essential for the well-being of most terrestrial ecosystems and are nature's decomposers and recyclers Fungi
What three lifestyles do fungi have ? Decomposers, parasites, and mutualists
These produce haploid spores by mitosis Molds
These reproduce asexually with or without spores Yeasts
These have flagellated spores Chytrids
These have resistant zygosporangium as sexual stage Zygomycota (Zygomycetes)
These are formed with plants Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi)
These have sexual spores borne internally in sacs called asci and produce vast numbers of asexual spores Ascomycota (Ascomycetes)
What are sexual spores called (ascomycetes) ascospores
What are asexual spores called (ascomycetes) conidia
These have elaborate fruiting body (basidiocarp) containing many basidia that produce sexual spores (basidiospores) Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
These resulted from a symbiotic relationship between fungus and an algae Lichens
Provides carbon compounds Algae
Provides nitrogen Cyanobacteria
Provides growing environment Fungi
What is the amphibian chytrid fungus called Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd)
The most precipitous decline of North American wildlife is caused by this white nose syndrome
What causes white nose syndrome Pseudogymnoascus destructans
What are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers Animals
Cleavage leads to the formation of a what ? blastula
The common ancestor of living animals may have lived between how many million years ago 675 and 875
Animals moved on land by: 460 mya
Vertebrates moved on land by: 360 mya
This allows for much greater body flexibility and movement, space for visceral organs, greater body size because of more surface area for gas exchange, and serve as a hydrostatic skeleton in some worms coelom function
This is a clade of animals with true tissues Eumetazoa
These are basal animals with no tissue Sponges
Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria, and are called ________ Bilaterians
There are 52,000 species of vertebrates and half of them are ______ fish
Which clade does Chordates belong to? Deuterostomes
What type of deuterostomes are urochordates and cephalochordates invertebrate deuterostomes
Which clade of animals have a cranium Craniata
What aquatic animal is grouped in the Craniata clade Hagfish
What do hagfish lack ? vertebrae
What is the bony or cartilage based brain case called Cranium
Which clade consists of these four characteristics: notochord, dorsal, hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits or clefts, and muscular, post-anal tail Chordata
What does the notochord in chordata eventually become vertebrae
What does the dorsal, hollow nerve cord in chordata eventually become spinal cord and brain
What happens to the muscular, post-anal tail in chordata stays the same
What does the pharyngeal slits or clefts in chordata become gills or lungs
What animal that inhabits sedimentary areas is grouped in the Cephalochordata clade lancelets (not a vertebrate)
What subgroup do tunicates and sea squirts belong to Urochordata
This is removed hindrances of exoskeleton in terms of growth and are structured for easy attachment of muscles Endoskeleton
Segmented body muscles called ________ - changed from folded "V" to folded "W" for more maneuverability myomeres
During the Cambrian period, a lineage of craniates (true head) evolved into _______ vertebrates
What is another word for the development of the jaw gnathostomes
Which clade includes the bony fish and tetrapods Osteichthyes
When did birds develop feathers 150 mya
When did mammals develop fur 200 mya
Vertebrates have paired kidneys with ducts to do what drain waste to exterior
Vertebrates have a presence of outer and inner epidermis which are modified to produce what ? hair, scales, feathers, glands, horn, etc.
Birds, lampreys, and hagfish all lack what paired gonads
Vertebrates replaced the notochord with what ? vertebral column
the development of the jaw might have evolved from the skeletal supports of the what ? pharyngeal slits
What animals lack jaws jawless hagfish and lampreys
Sharks, rays, skates, and ratfish all lack what ? hard skeleton
Bony fish, lungfish, and coelocanths all lack what ? true limbs
Amphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians) lack what ? amniotic egg and fully functional lungs
Which animals (invertebrates or vertebrates) have bony cartilaginous endoskeletons vertebrates
Muscular, perforated pharynx ; site of _____ in fishes gills
The general body plan of _________ consists of the head, trunk, 2 pairs of appendages, and a post anal tail vertebrates
Created by: tparker31



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