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Ch 1

Micro

QuestionAnswer
aseptic techniques used to eliminate or minimize contamination
pathogen disease causing
8 taxonomy levels domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
genus and species the binomial name given to everything ex. E. Coli, Streptococcus mutans
3 domains Archea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
Subspecies strain or variety of organisms
prokaryotes does NOT have a nucleus
eukaryotes DOES HAVE a nucleus
Archaebacteria belong to "Archea Domain" ; ancient, oldest living forms known; able to live in extreme conditions
Bacteria Belong to "Bacteria Domain" ; unicellular prokaryotes - 3 types - bacillus (rods) , coccus (spheres), spiral (twisted) - all produce by binary fission - most are decomposers - some bacteria use flagella for motility
Parasites not always seen on microscopes
Fungi Eukaryotes that include yeasts (unicellular), molds (multi-cellular), lichens, and mushrooms ; heteroptrophic; have cell walls
Algae Eukaryotes that are photosynthetic (autotroph) and aquatic; multi/unicellular; categorized by the basis of pigmentation and composed of cell walls (red, brown, green); Agar is derived from cell walls of red algae
Protozoa Highly mobile aquatic eukaryotes which include paramecium, amoeba, mostly Asexual and sexual reproduction; capable of locomotion by Pseudopods, Cilia, and Flagella
Viruses missing link between living and non-living things ; first seen in 1932
Microscopic Animals Parasitic round worms, tapeworms
Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells
Spontaneous Generation believe that living things come from non-living things
Antonio van Leeuwenhoek Inventor of the microscope, made all microscopes on his own; Modern disciples: Bacteria, Protozoa, Fungi, Animals, and Algae
Carolus Linnaeus Father of taxonomy: First to discover Leeuwenhoeks microorganisms can be grouped into 6 categories
Difference between Bacteria Cell Walls and Archae Cell Walls Bacteria - contain peptidoglycan though lack cell walls Archae - composed of polymers rather then peptidoglycan
Aristotle proposed Spontaneous generation, believe that living things come from non-living things
Francesco Redi 1st to do meat experiment
John Needham 2nd to do meat experiment; boiled broth and sealed with corks, concluded must be 'life force' in flasks due to cloudiness
Lazaro Spallanzani Spontaneous generation does NOT occur; all living things arise from other living things; sealed glass by melting them
Louis Pasteur "swan necked flask experiment; developed scientific method; discovered fermentation and pasteurization - industrial microbiology and food and beverage technology
Edward Buchner demonstrated fermentation does NOT require living cells, enzymes promote chemical reaction; biochemistry and study of microbial metabolism, genetics and genetic engineering
Robert Koch Koch's postulates - etiology (causation of diseases) - anthrax ; simple staining techniques, First: photomicrograph of bacteria, photo of bacteria in diseased tissue, used steam to sterilize, use of petri dish
Hans Christian Gram Gram Stain - Positive is Purple, Negative is Red, microbial morphology
Ignaz Semmelweis "Father of Handwashing", required medical students to wash their hands in chlorinated lime water prior to entering surgery; higher pt survival rate women were dying from child birth bc drs were working on cadavers, wiped hands and deliver babies
Joseph Lister Antiseptic Technique, sprayed wounds, surgical incisions, and dressing with carbolic acid (phenol)
Florence Nightingale Nurse who implemented aseptic technique in hospital ward, cutting down on infection, advocate for for hospital and public health reform
John Snow mapped cholera epidemic in London, foundation for infection control and epidemiology
Edward Jenner developed vaccine for smallpox (injected boy with cowpox and smallpox), began the field of immunology
Paul Ehrlich "Magic Bullets" chemicals that would destroy pathogens but not harm humans; chemotherapy
Which of the following microorganisms are not eukaryotic? A. bacteria B. yeasts C. molds D. protozoa Bacteria
Which microorganisms are used to make microbiological growth media? A. Bacteria B. Fungi C. Algae D. Protozoa Algae
In which habitat would you most likely find archaea? A. Acidic hot springs B. Swamp Mud C. Great Salt Lake D. all of the above All of the above
Of the following scientist, who first promulgated the theory of abiogenesis? A. Aristotle B. Pasteur C. Needham D. Spallanzani Aristotle
Which of the following scientists hypothesized that a bacterial colony arises from a single bacteria cell? A. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek B. Louis Pasteur C. Robert Koch D. Richard Petri Robert Koch
Which scientist first hypothesized that medical personnel can infect patients with pathogens? A. Edward Jenner B. Joseph Lister C. John Snow D. Ignaz Semmelweis Ignaz Semmelweis
Leeuwenhoek described microorganisms as_________. A. animalcules B. prokaryotes C. eukaryotes D. protozoa animalcules
Which of the following favored the theory of spontaneous generation? A. Spallanzani B. Needham C. Pasteur D. Koch Needham
A scientist who studies the role of microorganisms in the environment is a(n) ______________. A. genetic technologist B. earth microbiologist C. epidemiologist D. environmental microbiologist environmental microbiologist
The laboratory of Robert Koch contributed which of the following to the field of microbiology? A. simple staining techniques B. use of Petri dish C. first photomicrograph of bacteria D. all of the above All of the above
Biochemistry __________ and __________ . Pasteur and Buchner
Chemotherapy __________. Ehrlich
Immunology __________. Jenner
Infection Control __________. Snow
Etiology __________. Koch
Epidemiology __________. Snow
Biotechnology __________ . Pasteur
Food Microbiology __________ . Pasteur
Why was the theory of spontaneous generation a hindrance to the development of the field of microbiology?
Discuss the significant diff between the flasks used by Pasteur and Spallanzani. How did Pasteur's investigation settle the dispute about spontaneous generation
List 6 types of microorganisms fungi protozoa algae bacteria archaea viruses
Defend this statement: "the investigations of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek changed the world forever." Leeuwenhoek was a dutch sailor and merchant. He learned to make his own magnifing glasses to examine the quality of cloth. He began making
Why would a macroscopic tapeworm be studied in microbiology? Even tho most of these worms are not microscopic as adults many of them cause diseases that were studied by early microbiologists. Infections of tapeworms were dx by finding microscopic eggs n immature stages in the blood fecal urine n lymph specimens.
Describe what has been called the "Golden Age of Microbiology" with the reference to 4 major questions that propelled scientists during that period. 1.Is spontaneous generation of microbial life possible? 2. What causes fermentation? 3.What causes disease? 4. How can we prevent infection and disease?
Refer to 4 steps in the scientific method in describing Pasteur's fermentation experiment. 1. Observes phenomenon and generates question 2. Hypothesis 3. Conducts Experiment 4. Analyzes results, either accepting, rejecting, or modifying hypothesis
Developed smallpox immunization Jenner
First photomicrograph of bacteria Koch
Germ theory of disease Pasteur
Germs cause disease Pasteur, Koch
Sought a "magic bullet" to destroy pathogens Ehrlich
Early epidemiologist Snow
Father of Microbiology Pastuer
Classification system Linnaeus
Discoverer of bacteria Leeuwenhoek
Discoverer of protozoa Leeuwenhoek
Founder of antiseptic surgery Lister
Developed the most widely used bacterial staining technique Gram
Created by: Cpvander