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Ecology Part 2

Abiotic Factors: The atmosphere, biomes.

What is climate? The mean of weather in an area over 30 years
What 5 aspects interact and contribute to climate? Atmosphere; Biosphere; Hydrosphere; Lithosphere; Cryosphere
What are two causes of climatic variation? The tilt of the Earth, and the uneven heating of the Earth.
Seasonal variability increases the further away from the equator you are. Why is this? Because the equator is horizontally central, it experiences the same conditions year round. However the Earth is tilted, and so as it revolves, the parts of Earth that exist on more of an angle can be closer or further from the sun.
In order of closeness to the equator, name the three thermal cells. Hadley, Ferrel, Polar
What is the Hadley cell? The Hadley cell brings air up from the equator, where it spreads out and drops around the 30 degree latitude.
What kind of landscape typically occurs around 30 degree latitudes and why? Deserts form around these areas. This is because the air is much drier after rising and spreading from the equator.
What is the Ferrel cell? The Ferrel cell scoops up air from the 30 degree zone and deposits it at the 60 degree zone.
What is the Polar cell? It deposits the air from the 60 degree zone to the poles.
What is the Coriolis effect? Air is shifted to the right in the Northern Hemisphere, and left in the South.
What are the wind types that exist? Polar Easterlies, Westerlies, NE trade, SE trade
Around what latitude to the trade winds exist? The equator
In order from farthest from Earth to closest, name the altitudes of the atmosphere. Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere
Which altitude has the highest pressure? The lowest? The troposphere has the highest pressure, and the thermosphere has the lowest.
What makes the stratosphere so important? It contains the ozone layer
Which altitude has the most mass? The troposphere
Which slope of a mountain will have the most precipitation? The West
Differentiate between south facing and north facing slopes. South facing slopes get a lot more sun, therefore are warmer and drier, so have grass and shrubs. North facing slopes are cooler and shadier, so have a lot of trees.
Describe the effects of El Nino El Nino causes the normal winds from Peru to Indonesia to slow down. This stops upwelling of water, which in turn prevents nutrients and fish thriving. Additionally, the Pacific gets warmer.
What is a microclimate? A small climatic variation from the normal in the area.
What is a biome? A large classification of terrestrial habitats distinguished by vegetation and climate type.
How many biomes are there globally? 9
What are the four primary biomes in Canada? Tundra, Boreal forest, grass/shrubland, temperate forest.
Describe the tundra. Cold and dry, short summers, less than 600 mm precipitation annually, lots of permafrost, dominant vegetation includes lichens, moss, small plants.
Give an example of one mammal that lives in the tundra. caribou
What is another name for the boreal forest? The taiga
Describe the boreal forest. Lots of woods and water, found only in the north, longer than 6 month winters, 200mm-600mm precipitation, drought can lead to fire, variable soils, thick LFH layer, mostly coniferous trees, some riparian areas.
Give an example of aa boreal forest mammal. lynx
Describe the temperate forest. 650-3000 mm precipitation, very fertile soils, forest vertically stratified, heavy snowfall, more biomass than tropics.
What are the layers of the temperate forest? Herb layer, shrubs, understory, canopy.
Give an example of a mammal that lives in the temperate forest. Bat
Describe the temperate grass region. 300-1000 mm precipitation, can have long droughts, fertile organic soils, lots of herbaceous vegetation, most vegetative mass underground.
Give an example of a historical animal of the plains? Bison
Give an example of a current animal of the plains? Badger
How many Canadian ecozones are there? How many are marine? 20 ecozones, 5 marine.
How many ecozones are in Alberta? 6
What is the largest ecozone in Canada? Boreal shield
What ecozone does Edmonton exist in? boreal plains.
What ecozone does Calgary exist in? prairies.
Created by: swilson67