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Endocrine System

Anatomy and Physiology II

Anatomy The study of structure
Physiology The study of function
Catabolism Breakdown of complex chemical reactions
Anabolism The building of complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components
Homeostasis The condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body's internal environment
Homeo Same
Stasis Standing
Intracellular fluid (ICF) Fluid inside body cells
Extracellular fluid (ECF) Fluid outside body cells
Symptoms Subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer, e.g., headache or nausea
Signs Objective changes that a clinician can observe or measure, e.g., fever or rash
Anatomical position A stanadrdized method of observing or imaging the body that allows precise and consistent anatomical reference
Describe the Anatomical Position The person stands erect, facing the observer, the upper extremities are placed at the sides, the palms of the hands are turned forward, and the feet are flat on the floor
Regional Names Names given to specific regions of the body for reference
Buccal Cheek
Digital Digits (fingers/toes)
Scapular Shoulder blade region
Patellar Anterior (front)surface of the knee
Calcaneal Heel of the foot
Cephalic Head
Cranial Skull surrounding the brain
Facial Face
Frontal Forehead
Orbital Eye
Otic Ear
Nasal Nose
Oral Mouth
Mental Chin
Occipital Back of head
Axial Pertaining to the central part of the body, the head and trunk
Cervical Neck
Thoracic Chest
Sternal Breast bone
Pectoral Chest
Mammary Breast
Abdominal Abdomen
Umbilical Naval
Coxal Hip
Pelvic Pelvis
Pubic Genital area
Dorsal Back
Scapular Shoulder blade region
Vertebral Spinal column
Lumbar Area of the back between the lowest rib and buttocks
Appendicular Pertaining to the extremities or limbs
Acromial Highest point on the shoulder
Olecranal Posterior (back) surface of the elbow
Antebrachial Forearm
Carpal Wrist
Manual Hand
Palmar Palm of the hand
Inguinal Groin where the thigh attaches to the pelvis
Gluteal Buttocks
Femoral Thigh
Popliteal Posterior (back) surface of the knee
Crural Anterior (front) surface of the leg. Also known as the chin.
Fibular Llateral side of the leg
Peroneal Lateral side of the leg
Sural Posterior (back) surface of the leg. Also known as the calf.
Tarsal Ankle
Pedal Foot
Plantar Sole of the foot
Directional Terms Used to precisley locate one part of thr body relative to another
Superior Above
Inferior Below
Anterior (Ventral) Closer to the front of the body
Posterior (Dorsal) Closer to the back of the body
Medial Closer to the midline of the body
Lateral Farther from the midline of the body
Intermediate Between two structures
Ipsilateral On the same side of the body
Contralateral On the opposite side of the body
Proximal Nearer to a point of attachment to a limb to trunk
Distal Farther to a point of attachment to a limb or trunk
Superficial Closer to the surface of the body
Deep Farther from surface body
Planes Imaginary flat surfaces that are used to divide the body
Section Tthe exposed surface produced buy a plane
Body Cavities Spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs
Created by: c_r_pierce