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The Nervous System

Biology 30-1

Autonomic System Invertebrates, the division of the peripheral nervous system that is under involuntary control
Somatic System Invertebrates, division of the peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary movement of skeletal muscle
Sympathetic Nervous System Division of the autonomic system that regulates involuntary processes in the body
Norepinephrine Neurotransmitter released by sympathetic neurons of the autonomic system to produce an excitatory effect on target muscles
Parasympathetic Nervous System -Rest & Digest -Dominates during times of relaxation -Stimulates activity in digestive system, salivation and tears
Thalamus Shuttles vision, auditory and touch sensory info to cerebrum & limbic system
Midbrain -very reduced in humans -relays auditory & visual information -role in eye movement & control of skeletal muscle
Pons Relay between left and right sides of cerebellum as well as relay to forebrain
Medulla Oblongata Controls automatic functions -breathing, heart rate, blood pressure, swallowing -large extension of spinal cord
Cerebellum coordination of voluntary movements, balance & equilibrium receives input about body position from specialized sensors called proprioceptors located in muscles and joints
Meninges three laters of tough, elastic tissue with the skill & spinal column which directly enclose the brain & spinal cord
White Matter Part of the nervous system that is made up of tracts of myelinated nerve fibers. Forms the inner region of some areas of the brain & the outer area of the spinal cord
Gray Matter Part of the nervous system that contains mostly cell bodies, dendrites & short unmyelinated nerve fibers. Forms the outer areas of the brain & the H-shaped core of the spinal cord
Acetylcholine the primary neurotransmitter of both the somatic nervous system & the parasympathetic nervous system. -open Na+ channels in the postsynaptic neuron
Nodes of Ranvier Gap in the myelin sheath insulating the axon of the myelinated nerve cell The membrane of the axon is exposed & action potentials occure only at the nodes Nerve impulses jump from one node of Ranvier to the next.
Myelin Sheath Layer of fatty protein wrapped around axon Myelin speeds movements of nerve impulses by insulating axons
Axon Projection of cell body Conducts impulses away from cell body to synaptic
Cell Body Contains nucleus & cytoplasm Carries on normal metabolic activities of nerve cells Integrates signals from the dendrites & initiates nerve impulses down the axon
Dendrites Projections of cell body Receives signals & transmit towards cell body
Glial Cells Non conducting "support" cells that are involved in support & metabolism of neurons
Neurons Functional unites of nervous system Specialized to conduct electrochemical impusles
Corpus Callosum Halves communicate through a band of myelinated axons
Cerebrum Controls higher-level thinking Intellect, memory, personality, language, interpretation of sensory information & control of voluntary muscles movement
Hypothalamus Released hormones Directs Autonomic nervous system Controls internal body environment Controls "primitive" drives (thirst, hunger, sleep) & emotions
Cerebral Cortex Responsible for language, memory, personality, conscious thought & other activities that are associated with thinking & feeling
Wernicke's Area Stores the information involved in language comprehension
Broca's Area Coordinates the muscles for speaking & translates thought into speech
Temporal Lobes Auditory, Memory
Polarization Lowering the membrane potential of the cell below its equilibrium value
Nervous System System made up of cells & organs that let an animal detect changes & respond to them. Made up of the brain & spinal cord, as well as the nerves that emerge from them & connect them to the rest of the body
Homeostasis The tenancy of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment
Peripheral Nervous System Network of nerves that carry sensory messages to the central nervous system & send information from the CNS to the muscles & glands
Central Nervous System Network of nerves that includes the brain & spinal cord; integrates & processes information sent by nerves
Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump System involving a carrier protein in the plasma membrane that uses the energy of ATP to transport sodium ions out of & potassium ions into animal cells
Frontal Lobes Control precise, voluntary motor skills including speech production Reasoning, critical thinking, memory & personality Inhibition of unsuitable behaviours
Nerves Macroscopic structures Made up of many neurons grouped into bundles Message pathway of the nervous system
Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulates between meninges and throughout the brain & spinal cord providing cushioning & shock absorption Transports hormones, nutrients & white blood cells
Refractory Period Na/K pump active K channels open Na channels shut Restores ion concentrations necessary for resting potential Neuron is not receptive to another stimulus until resting potential of -70mV is established -90mV to -70mV
Parietal Lobes Touch, pain, pressure, temperature, help process body position information
Occipital Lobes Primary visual processing
Repolarization K channels open Na channels shut Na/K pump inactive -40mV to -90mV
Depolarization Neuron receives stimulus K channels shut Na channels are open Na/K pump stops Neuron becomes positively charged Once the neuron reaches +40mV the sodium channel is shut -70mV to +40mV
Resting Membrane Potential Na/K Pump active K channels open "leaky" Na channels closed More positive ions are moving out of the neuron than are coming in, creates negative resting potential -70mV
Cholinesterase Enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in a synapse
Neuromuscular Junction The synapse connection a motor neuron to a muscular fiber. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine causes an action potential which triggers muscle fiber contraction
Synapse Tiny junction between neurons or between a motor neuron & an effector (ex. muscle)
Neurotransmitter Chemicals released by the presynaptic neuron that influence the activity of the postsynaptic neuron. The receptor on the postsynaptic neuron determines th NTs effect
Schwann Cells A type of insulating glial cell that wraps around the axon of a neuron, creating a myelin sheath
Reflex Arcs Involuntary movement initiated without brain control Ex. pain-withdrawal reflex
Blood-Brain Barrier Protective barrier formed by selectively permeable blood vessels that controls entrance of substances into the brain from the blood
Membrane Potentail Measure of the charge inside of a cell relative to the outside
Action Potential In an axon, the change in charge that occues when the gates of the K+ channels close & the gates of Na+ channels open after a wave of depolarization is triggered
Created by: Carlie588
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