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68WM6 Blood 09-10

QuestionAnswer
ABO Blood Groups A system of grouping blood based on the presence or absence of two antigens.
Albumin Small plasma protiens synthesized in the liver that are the primary components of osmotic pressure in the bloodstream .
Anemia A condition that results from too few erthyrocytes or hemoglobin.
Antibodies soluble, globular proteins that directly attack antigens, activate complement, or stimulate changes that prevent the spread of pathogens.
Antigens A chemical compound attached to a cell surface which, if not recognized by the lymphatic system, elicits an immune response.
Coagulation an effective hemostatic mechanism that causes blood clots throught the use of clotting factors.
Colloid Osmotic Pressure the pressure resulting from water moving toward an area of a higher concentration of a solute.
Embolus a dislodged blood clot that is moving through the blood vessels.
Erythrocytes biconcave disks, also known as red blood cells, used to transport gases.
Erythropoietin a hormone that is secreted by the kidney an dliver to control rate of erythrocyte production.
Fibrin insoluble threads of protein that form a meshwork at sites of injury that entrap blood cells and platelets forming blood clots.
Fibrinogen a large protein synthesized in the liver that functions in blood coagulation.
Globulin three types of proteins sythesized in the lover and lymphatic tissue and are important in the transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins and immunity.
Hematocrit the percantage of formed elements in a volume of whole blood. (erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets)
Hemoglobin oxygen carrying portion of the erythrocyte.
Hemostasis the processes responsible for stopping blood loss when a blood vessel is damaged.
Leukocytes Five types of cells, also known as white blood cells, that protect against disease.
Five Types of Leukocytes 1. Neutrophils2. Eosinophils3. Basophils4. Monocytes5. Lymphocytes
Lipoprotein proteins that combine with lipids to allow transport of lipids through the bloodstream.
Rh Blood Group a system of grouping blood based on the presence of the Rh antigen.
Thromobocytes cell fragments, as known as platelets, that close breaks in damaged blood vessels and initiate the formation of blood clots.
Plasma clear straw-colored loquid portion of whole blood which contains a complex mixture of chemicals.
Thrombopoietin a hormone responsible for the initiation of the formation of thrombocytes.
Thrombus a blood clot that abnormally forms in a blood vessel.
Whole Blood the combination of all fluid and components in the blood.
Function of Blood Transports biochemicals throughout the body.
Products absorbed into the digestion tract amino acids, simple sugars, lipid, vitamins, and iron.
Blood distributes _____. heat
How does blood distribute heat? Warm blood from body core moves to surface where it is cooled and exchanged in the body core.
Blood helps maintain hydrostatic pressure how? The pressure in the capillaries resulting from the action of the heart.
Blood protects against disease by transporting a wide variety of cells that fight infection and prevent disease.
Blood plugs damaged vessels by providing biochemicals and cells that form necessary clots to prevent blood loss when blood vessels are damaged.
Erythrocytes biconcave disks, also known as red blood cells, used to transport gases.
Why are red blood cells shaped as biconcave disks? the shape increases the surface area allowing more gases to be carried.
Hemoglobin the oxygen carrying portion of the erythrocite. Approximately 1/3 of the erythrocyte volume. Bright-red when bound with oxygen.
Cell life span is... Approximately 120 days.
Macrophages destroy damages cells primarily in the_______. Liver
Vitamins necessary for erythrocyte development Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid
Iron is a major component of____. Hemoglobin
Anemia A condition that results from too few erythrocytes or hemoglobin.
What is a characteristic of anemia? Pale appearance and lack of energy.
Bilirubin Orange pigment resulting from the breakdown of hemoglobin.
Jaundice An excess of bilirubin in the bloodstream.
Leukocytes Five types of cells, also known as white blood cells. Protect against disease, phagocytize bacterial cells.
Leukocytes produce proteins (antibodies) that destroy or disable foreign particles.
Granulocytes Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils.
Agranulocytes Monocytes, Lymphocytes
Leukocytes Cell Count
Leukocytosis An increase in the normal level present in the blood (>10,000 per mm3). May indicate an acute infection.
Leukopenia A decrease in the normal level present in the blood(<5000 per mm3)
Leukopenia is usually the result of_____. A disease process...malfunction of blood forming tissues, disease affecting immune system (AIDS)
DIFF Differential white blood cell count
DIFF is a test that lists____. Percentages of the types of leukocytes in a blood sample.
Neutrophils usually increase in______infections. Bacterial
Eosinophils may increase during______infections. Parasitic
Platelets Incomplete cells and portions of cells also known as thrombocytes.
Platelets clump together at the site of the_____. Hemorrhage
Blood vessel damage causes platelets to become____and form a _____. become sticky and form a "platelet plug"
Platelets ultimately become a part of_____. the clot itself.
Plasma proteins Most abundant of the dissolved substance in blood.
Plasma proteins remain in the blood and______fluids. interstitial fluids
Albumins Smallest protein, accounts for 60% of proteins by wieght, importance factors in the process of osmotic pressure in the bloodstream.
Colloid Osmotic Pressure protiens are unable to _________. Proteins unable to cross the vessel wall.
Colloid Osmotic Pressure creates osmotic pressure on the side with________. protiens
Water crosses towards the area of ______ osmotic pressure. highest
Globulins: Alpha and Beta are synthesized in the_______. Liver
Globulins: Alpha and Beta transport______and_____. Lipids and fat-soluble vitamins.
Gamma Plasma Proteins are produced in the_____ ______. Lymphatic Tissues
Gamma Plasma Proteins are a type of_____. Antibody
Fibrinogens function in_______. Blood Coagulation.
Fibrogens are synthesized in the______. Liver
Fibrinogens are the_____of the proteins. Largest
Blood Gases have two functional components they are.... Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
A nonfunctional component of blood gas is Nitrogen
Plasma Nutrients: Simple sugars and Nucleotides
Simple Sugars are the basic resource for____. Cellular Energy
Simple sugars are stored as___or___. Glycogen or Fat
Nucleotides are the building blocks of____. Nucleic Acid
Three different types of lipids are: Fats, Phopholipids, and Cholesterol.
Plasma nutrients form_____when combined with proteins(water soluble) Lipoprotiens
What is a VLDL? Very low-density lipoproteins
LDL means.... Low Density Lipoproteins
HDL is..... High-Density Lipoproteins
Plasma Nutrient Nitrogen Compounds are: Amino Acid, Urea, and Uric Acid.
Amino Acid is transported to the liver and used to________. manufacture proteins.
Urea is produced from the breakdown of_____. proteins.
Urea is excreted in the______. Urine
Uric Acid is produced from the breakdown of ______. Nucleic Acid.
Hemostasis the stopping of bleeding in a damaged blood vessel.
Vasospasm Contraction of smooth muscle in the vessel wall.
Platelet Plug Formation Platelets adhere to rough surfaces and collagen.
Platelet Plug Formation is effective in_____injuries to blood vessels. small
Coagulation is a.... Blood Clot!
A blood clot is defined as... an injury to a blood vessel initiates an increase in clotting factors that promote coagulation.
When blood clots, prothrombin is converted into______. Thrombin
Thrombin breaks______into____. Thrombin breaks fibrinogen into fibrin strands.
Fibrin strands join forming a ______structure which sticks to exposed injured tissue. mesh-like (kind of like your brother's favorite shirt heeeyyy!)
Red blood cells and platelets are caught in this mesh-like structure forming a_____. Blood Clot
Thrombus a blood clot abnormally formed in a blood vessel.
Embolus is a fragment of a____. Thrombus
An embolus will continue to move until it becomes lodged in a narrow portion of the lood vessel causing a blockage of____. Blood Flow
An embolus in the heart causes a ____. Acute Myocardial Infarction
An embolus in the lungs causes a ____. Pulmonary Embolism
An Embolus in the brain causes a _____. Cerebral Vascular Accident
Antigens A substance that can stimulate the body to make antibodies.
Antibodies A substance made by the body in response to stimulation by an antigen. (Proteins that attack non-self antigens.)
ABO Blood Group the presence (or absence)of two major protein antigens (A and or B or neither) on red blood cell membranes.
Pulmonary Circulation the portion of the cardiovascular system which transports oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart.
Systemic Circulation the portion of the cardiovascular system which transports oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the rest of the body, and returns oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart.
distance-wise, this type of circluation is much longer than pulmonary circulation, transporting blood to every part of the body except the lungs. Systemic Circulation
The coronary circulatory system provides a blood supply to the heart
There are four chambers in the heart they are: left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium and right ventricle.
As blood begins to circulate, it leaves the heart from the left ventricle and goes into the ____. Aorta
The aorta is the largest___in the body. artery
The blood leaving the aorta is full of____. oxygen.
On its way back to the heart, the blood travels through a system of____ . veins
The heart's right side receives dark bluish blood from the_____and____vena cava. superior and inferior vena cava.
The superior vena cava is the large vein that brings blood back from the _____ part of the body. upper
The inferior vena cava is the vein that brings blood from the_____body lower
The bright red oxygenated blood returns to the heart's_____side. left
Then the oxygenated blood is pumped out into a large artery called the_____to be distributed by smaller arteries to all parts of the body aorta
The four heart valves are: 1.Tricuspid valve2.Pulmonary (pulmonic) valve3.Mitral valve4.Aortic valve
During each heartbeat, typically about_____of blood are pumped out of the heart. 60 to 90 ml (about 2 to 3 oz)
Blood consists of three types of cells: 1.oxygen-bearing red blood cells2. disease-fighting white blood cells3. blood-clotting platelets
Arteries have_____walls than veins to withstand the pressure of blood being pumped from the heart thicker
Septum – the muscular wall separating the chambers of the heart
Vena Cava the largest vein
The contraction of the heart is called systole
The relaxation of the heart is called diastole
Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.
Granulocytes or PMN are released from the bone marrow by the regulatory complement proteins
the most abundant type of phagocyte Neutrophils
How long do neutrophils live? they live approximately five days
Eosinophils play a crucial part in the killing of parasites
Basophils are one of the least abundant cells in bone marrow and blood (occurring at less than two percent of all cells).
Agranulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterised by the absence of granules in their cytoplasm.
There are two types of agranulocytes Lymphocytes & Monocytes
The blood has three types of lymphocytes: B cells, T cells and natural killer cells
Monocytes they present pieces of pathogens to T cells so that the pathogens may be recognized again and killed
Vitamin K will increase synthesis of... prothrombin (helps blood clot)
Define Myocardium... Heart muscle
Arteries and Veins have __ layers of tissue 3
True or False: You LOVE TRADOC YARRRR!!!! Health and Welfare YARRRR!!!
Blood Pressure is the highest when______the heart. Exiting
Blood Pressure is lowest when ______ the heart. Returning To
The Erythrocyte is responsible for transporting___and___. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Neutrophil is the ____defense. Immune
Eosinophil defends the body against____. Parasytic Defense
Created by: 670441040