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Genetics SB3a.

Intro.to Mendel laws and Meiosis

TermDefinition
Gregor Mendel (III) A monk in the 1850’s that studied how plants inherit traits
crossing over occurs when genetic material is exchanged between nonsister homologous chromatids
diploid cell with two copies of every chromosome
haploid In the case of a single-celled eukaryotic organism, having a single complete set of chromosomes. In the case of a multicellular eukaryotic organism, having a single complete set of chromosome in each somatic cell
gametes eggs and sperm for sexual reproduction
gene represents the genetic material on a chromosome that contains the instructions for creating a particular trait
allele is one of several varieties of a gene
trait is a distinguishing personal characteristic or quality.
locus refers to the location on a chromosome where a gene is located
Meiosis formation of gametes; a human has 46 chromosomes 23 chromosomes from mom and 23 chromosomes from father (sperm has 23 and egg has 23)
law of segregation refers to the random segregation of alleles (and their chromosomes) to separate gametes
law of independent assortment homologous chromosomes, and the genes they carry, segregate independently of the segregation of other chromosome pairs.
multiple alleles three or more alleles for a particular gene
pedigree a chart that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships within a family across several generations
genetic variability the process in which homologous chromosomes will exchange genetic material with one another
linked genes genes that reside on the same chromosome and thus cannot segregate independently because they are physically connected.
nondisjunction occurs when the chromosomes do not properly separate
Created by: delisa.knighton