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Nutrition Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Autotroph An organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances using light or chemical energy.
Heterotroph An organism that cannot manufacture its own food and instead obtains its food and energy by taking in organic substances, usually plant or animal matter
Chemoautotroph an organism, typically a bacterium, that derives energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds.
Photoautotroph any organism that derives its energy for food synthesis from light and is capable of using carbon dioxide as its principal source of carbon
Calories unit of heat energy that is equal to the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Centigrade at 1 atmospheric pressure.
Energy Energy exists in different forms but is neither created nor destroyed; it simply converts to another form.
Ingestion ingestion refers to the taking in of a substance, there are a multitude of mechanisms by which various organisms do this.
Digestion The catabolic process in the digestive tract where ingested food is converted into simpler, soluble and diffusible substances that can be assimilated by the body
Egestion Egestion is the discharge or expulsion of undigested material (food) from a cell in case of unicellular organisms, and from the digestive tract via the anus in case of multicellular organisms.
Roughage Coarse food high in fiber but low in nutrients; its bulk stimulates peristalsis.Indigestible materials that are part of a healthy diet to promote the action within the intestines to prevent constipation.
Cellulose A complex carbohydrate that forms the main constituent of the cell wall in most plants and is important in the manufacture of numerous products, such as paper, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and explosives.
Body mass index A measurement of the relative percentages of fat and muscle mass in the human body, in which weight in kilograms is divided by height in meters squared.
Absorption The process of absorbing or assimilating substances into cells or across the tissues and organs through diffusion or osmosis, as in absorption of nutrients by the digestive system, or absorption of drugs into the bloodstream.
Diffusion Diffusion is the net passive movement of particles (atoms, ions or molecules) from a region in which they are in higher concentration to regions of lower concentration.
Villi A small projection on the surface of a mucous membrane, such as that of the small intestine.
Constipation Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass. Common causes include slow movement of stool within the colon, irritable bowel syndrome, and pelvic floor disorders.
Enzyme catalysts which speed up chemical reactions, but remain unchanged themselves
Macromolecules A large complex molecule, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, with relatively large molecular weight.
Bulimia An eating disorder characterized by episodes of secretive excessive eating (binge-eating) followed by inappropriate methods of weight control, such as self-induced vomiting (purging), abuse of laxatives and diuretics, or excessive exercise.
Anorexia An eating disorder characterized by markedly reduced appetite or total aversion to food
Created by: amiliaboot