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honors Week 8

Week 8: Human Genetics and Biotechnology

QuestionAnswer
gene regulation the various systems that control and determine which genes are switched on and off, and when, how long, and to what extent the genes are expressed.
color blindness visual defect resulting in the inability to distinguish colors and is usually an inherited sex
Cystic fibrosis an inherited condition that affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices; a defective gene causes the secretions to become thick and sticky; the secretions plug up tubes, ducts and passageways, especially in the lungs and pancreas.
Down's Syndrome A human genetic disease resulting from having an extra chromosome 21, characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects
hemophilia genetic disorder that impairs the blood's ability to clot and can cause excessive bleeding
Huntington's Disease autosomal dominant, inherited adult inherited adult-onset disease of the central nervous system
incomplete dominance neither allele is dominant; a blending of the two create a new phenotype
karyotype A method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type
nondisjunction an accident of meiosis or mitosis, in which both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or both sister chromatids fail to move apart properly
Pedigree A family tree describing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring across as many generations as possible.
PKU inherited absence of phenylalanine hydroxylase (an enzyme that converts phenylalanine into tyrosine). Phenylalanine accumulates in blood and seriously impairs early neuronal development. The defect can be controlled by diet.
polygenic traits an additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.
Sex-linked trait An inherited trait, such as color discrimination, determined by a gene located on a sex chromosome and that therefore shows a different pattern of inheritance in males and females
Sickle Cell Anemia a disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescent shape. Red blood cells carry oxygen to the body and are normally shaped like a disc.
biotechnology The industrial use of living organisms or their components to improve human health and food production.
Bt corn a genetically modified organism (GMO) which has been bioengineered to resist the European corn borer, a crop pest which can cause significant damage to crops
cloning to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell.
DNA fingerprint A method used to identify DNA banding patterns that are specific to an individual or for comparing the nucleotide sequences of fragments of DNA from different sources.
gel electrophoresis the separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
gene therapy The transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.
genetically modified organism an organism whose genetic material has been altered
genomics The branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes.
Human Genome Project An international project to map the entire genetic material of a human being
plasmid A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome
recombinant DNA A DNA molecule made in vitro with segments from different sources
restriction enzyme An enzyme that catalyzes the cleavage of DNA at specific locations , producing small fragments used in gene splicing for DNA technology.
Created by: nbctbio