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biology cells

cell structure and function

TermDefinition
eukaryotic cells fungi, plants, 10-100 micrometers, nucleus with envelope, 80s, flagella/cilia made of tubulin, cytoskeleton, 1-100 mitochondria, chloroplasts in algae and plants, multi-cellular, mitosis.
prokaryotic cells bacteria, 1-10 micrometers, no nucleus, 70s, few structures, flagellae/cilia made of flagellin, no mitochondria, no chloroplasts, single celled,simple division.
cell membrane controls what enters/leaves the cell.
cytoplasm everything within the cell membrane- cytosol and organelles.
nucleus holds DNA in it, contains a nucleolus.
nuclear envelope has pores so proteins and mRNA can pass through it. double membrane.
mitochondria site of respiration. uses ATP. inner membrane of it has many fold, called cristae.
ribosomes site of protein synthesis.
rough ER has ribosomes on the outer side of it, site of protein synthesis.
smooth ER where proteins are prepared for secretion, where polypeptides are converted into functional proteins.
golgi apparatus processes proteins, packages them and secretes them. adds carbohydrates to them. pinches off vesicles.
lysosomes site of protein digestion, formed pieces of golgi.
cytoskeleton maintains the shape of the cell, serve as tracks for organelles to move along within the cell, they form the centriole.
centriole two bundles of microtubules at right angles to each other.
cilia and flagellae assist movement,keep bacteria from entering the body.
cell wall (plant cells) freely permeable, rigid- helps to support and protect the plant.
vacuoles (plant cells) large membrane bound sac, storage area for waste
chloroplasts (plant cells) thylakoids which contain chlorophyll, arranged in stacks called granum, space in-between- stroma.
website i used
Created by: SophieByrom