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chapter 8 & 10 vocab

Earthquake A sudden and violent shaking of the ground sometimes causing great distruction.
Focus The center of interest or activity.
Seismic waves waves of energy released by an earthquake
Epicenter point on earths surface directly above the focus
Elastic rebound explanation for how energy is released during an earthquake
Body waves seismic waves that move through the inside of earth
P waves push-pull body waves
S waves side to side body waves
Surface waves seismic waves that move on earths surface
Seismograph an instrument that measures and records details about earthquakes.
Seismogram a record produced by a seismograph
Richter Slcale numerical scale (1-?) based on height of largest seismic wave
Moment Magnitude Scale more accurate as it measures the amount of energy released
Modified Mercalli Scale Roman numeral scale that measurement the intensity created by an earthquake.
Liquefaction Saturated soil loses strength and acts like a liquid during an earthquake
Tsunami a long high sea wave caused by an earthquake, submarine landslide, or other disturbance.
Seismic gap is a segment of an active fault known to produce significant earthquakes that has not slipped in an unusually long time,
Crust a crust is the outermost layer of a planet.
Mantle is the part of the earth between the core and the the crust
Outer core is a fluid layer about 2,300 km (1,400 mi) thick
Inner core is the Earth's innermost part. It is primarily a solid ball with a radius of about 1,220 Kl (760 miles), which is about 70% of the Moon's radius.
Moho boundary between the earths crust and its mantle
Ring of fire The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Hot spot volcanic areas far from plate boundaries
Viscosity the state of being thick, sticky, and semifluid in consistency, due to internal friction
Vent an opening that allows air, gas, or liquid to pass out of or into a confined space
Pyroclastic material Pyroclastic material is another name for a cloud of ash, lava fragments carried through the air, and vapor.
Volcano opening (vent) that allows magma to escape to the surface
Crater a large, bowl-shaped cavity in the ground or on the surface of a planet or the moon, typically one caused by an explosion or the impact of a meteorite or other celestial body.
Shield volcano a broad, domed volcano with gently sloping sides, characteristic of the eruption of fluid, basaltic lava.
Cinder cone A steep, conical hill consisting of glassy volcanic fragments that accumulate around and downwind from a volcanic vent.
Composite volcano A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers
Caldera A large, bowl-shaped volcanic depression, a caldera forms when the top of a volcanic cone collapses into the space left after magma is ejected during a violent volcanic eruption.
Lahar is a type of mudflow or debris flow composed of a slurry of pyroclastic material, rocky debris, and water.
Pluton a body of intrusive igneous rock.
Sill a tabular sheet of igneous rock intruded between and parallel with the existing strata
Laccolith a mass of igneous rock, typically lens-shaped, that has been intruded between rock strata causing uplift in the shape of a dome.
Dike a long wall or embankment built to prevent flooding from the sea.
Batholith a very large igneous intrusion extending deep in the earth's crust.
Created by: 2007853
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