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marine biology

module 6

Vertebrata the organisms in this group have a backbone
vertebral column another name for a backbone
spinal cord the vertebral column is a series of integrated bone units that provides support for the body, these skeletal elements enclose and protect the nerve cord, which is also called this
Agnatha creatures in this class are commonly called jawless fish
jawless fish only two orders of these fishes are known to exist: the hagfishes and the lampreys
Anadromous a life cycle in which creatures are hatched in fresh water, migrate to salt water when adults, and return to fresh water in order to reproduce
Chondrichthyes this class holds sharks, rays, and skates
osteoblasts bone-producing cells
osteocytes mature bone cells
placoid scales cartilaginous fishes have their entire bodies covered with teeth called theses
denticles placoid scales are also called these
caudal fin another name for the tail fin
dorsal fins on the back side of the body
pectoral fins are typically long and pointed, giving them excellent steering ability as well as much-needed lift in the water column
pelvic and anal fins are used for stabilization
Ginglymostoma nurse shark
Sphyrna Hammerhead and bonnethead
Pristiophorus Sawsharks
Alopias thresher sharks
Mitsukurina goblin shark
Squalus dogfish
Squaliolus spiny pygmy shark
Cetorhinus basking shark
Rhincodon whale shark
Carcharodon great white shark
Galeocerdo tiger shark
Carcharhinus bull shark
demersal fishes that live on the bottom of the ocean
Stingrays have a whip-like tail that has stinging spines at its base
Electric rays stun their prey and protect themselves with two groups of special muscles located near the head
Manta rays and eagle rays have pectoral fins that resemble wings for “flying” in the water
Manta rays genus Manta
eagle rays genus Aetobatus
Skates are very similar to rays with the exception of the whip-like tail and spines, instead, they have a more fleshy tail
chimaeras these are also called rat fishes, they have a short, rounded snout and a long, pointed caudal fin, are mostly deep-water fishes, feeding on bottom-dwelling crustaceans and mollusks
Osteichthyes most of the fishes in creation are in this class, typically called the bony fishes
bony fishes another name for Osteichthyes
cycloid and ctenoid two basic types of bony fish scales
cycloid this scale has a smooth, rounded edge on both its inner and outer sides
ctenoid this scale has comb-like extensions on the inner edge and a toothed outer edge
operculum a flap made of bony plates, it covers and protects bony fishes gills
swim bladder a gas-filled sac located near a bony fish stomach, and allows them to attain neutral buoyancy
rays bony fin spines on bony fish are called this
air bladder another name for a swim bladder
tapered what body shape does a streamlined creature, slightly flattened on its sides, with fins for steering and maneuverability have
ray-like what body shape does a bottom-dwelling fishes are flattened from top to bottom, like a pancake, and aids in camouflage have
disc- and box-shaped what body shape does a fish have if it spend time swimming around coral reefs, traveling short distances in no particular hurry
eel-like what body shape does a fish have if it lives in narrow crevices of rocks or coral
elongated eel-like bodies are this
flat what body shape does a fish have if it is compressed laterally, or side to side
chromatophores surface pigment cells that expand and contract to produce various colors
camouflage is used to help fishes blend in with their surroundings
disguise another word for camouflage for fish that don't have chromatophores
disruptive coloration bold, contrasting marks to hide various body parts
mimicry fish that have coloring to make them appear like other fish that would not be considered prey
countershading when viewed from above, the dark side of the fish blends against the dark, deep water below,and when viewed from below, the silver-white side of the fish blends against the light coming down through the surface of the ocean
advertise a example of this is the brightly colored cleaner fish, which make themselves known to other fish that want to be cleaned, or some fishes do this with color in order to warn potential predators of their sharp, venomous spines or other dangerous features
myomeres bands of muscle along the sides of fishes used for locomotion
gill rakers projections along the inner surface of fishes' gills used for filter-feeding
megamouth shark Megachasma
planktivorous means plankton-eating
grazers bony fishes that feed on plant material and seaweeds are called this
taste buds once a fish obtains its food, the food passes across the tongue and over this
pharynx after the taste buds the food then passes through this
esophagus after the pharynx the food then passes a short (throat)
stomach after the esophagus leads to here, where food is broken down and stored until it needs to be digested
intestine food passes from the stomach to here where the food is then digested
pyloric ceca a main organ in most fishes' intestines (are slender, tube-like structures secrete digestive enzymes into the intestine)
pancreas digestive enzymes are secreted by this
bile the liver also plays a part in digestion by secreting this for the breakdown of fats
spiral valve resembles a spiral staircase, turning around and around as it moves down the length of the shark's gut
rectum the end of the intestine
anus the opening at the lower end of the alimentary canal, through which the solid refuse of digestion is excreted
two-chambered heart in fishes, the blood flow begins with this
atrium, and ventricle one of the two chambers in the two-chambered heart is called the ------ and the other is called -------
veins the atrium is responsible for receiving oxygen-poor blood from these
arteries oxygenated blood is then transported throughout the body by way of these
capillaries arteries branch out into smaller vessels called this
gill arches bony or cartilaginous structures
gill filaments gill arches each have a double row of bladelike what
lamellae to increase the surface area of the gills, each filament has feather-like separations called this
countercurrent fish have this type of blood flow
central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord
barbels indicates to fish their sense of smell is a very sharp one
nictitating membrane some of the more fierce predatory sharks have an extra covering, like an eyelid, called this
optic lobes these are found large in fishes brains for good vision
lateral line the sensory system in the fishes is called this
ampullae of Lorenzini along with the lateral line, most sharks also have sensory organs in their head called this, it can also can detect minute electrical fields in the water, and they even tell the shark the precise location from which the fields originate
schools some fish aggregate together into groups called this
Anguilla rostrata American fresh water eel
catadromous referring to fishes that migrate from fresh water to reproduce in the ocean
migration the regular movement of an organism from one location to another
urogenital opening jawless and bony fishes have a special opening, which allows passage of urine and gametes
cloaca the cartilaginous fishes have a common opening for the digestive and reproductive systems called this
hermaphroditism a situation in which an animal has the reproductive organs of both sexes
internal fertilization this is a result of direct transfer of sperm from the male to the female
claspers the males have a pair of these located next to the anal fins used for directly depositing sperm into the female
external fertilization most of the marine fishes reproduce by means of this
spawn fish that do this release their gametes into the water
oviparous a type of development in which eggs are hatched outside a female's body
ovoviviparous a type of development in which eggs are hatched inside the female's body
viviparous a type of development in which the young obtain their nutrients directly from the mother and are birthed live
fry the young larvae usually hatch after one to three days, still carrying their yolk sacs, at this stage they are called this
Created by: #1DoctorWhoFan