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11 Biology

Chapter 11, Unit 4

respiratory system the group of organs that provides living things with oxygen from outside the body and disposes of waste products such as carbon dioxide
respiration all of the processes involved in bringing oxygen into the body, making it available to each cell, and eliminating carbon dioxide as waste
inspiration the action of drawing oxygen-rich air into the lungs
expiration the action of releasing waste air from the lungs
gas exchange the transfer of oxygen from the inhaled air into the blood, and of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs; it is the primary function of the lungs
ventilation the process of drawing or pumping, and oxygen-containing medium over a respiratory surface
diffusion gradient describes the relationship in which a dissolved substance moves from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration
diaphragm a sheet of muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity
Spirograph a graph representing the amount (volume) and speed (rate of flow) of air that is inhaled and exhaled, as measuring by a spirometer
tidal volume the volume of air inhaled and exhaled during normal breathing
inspiratory reserve volume the volume of air that can be taken into the lungs beyond the regular tidal inhalation
expiratory reserve volume the volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs beyond the regular tidal exhalation
vital capacity the volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs during a single breath
residual volume the volume of air that remains in the lungs after a complete exhalation
pharynx the passageway just behind the mouth that connects the mouth and nasal cavity to the larynx and esophagus
trachea the tube that carries air from the nasal passages or mouth to the bronchi and then to the lungs; also known as the windpipe
glottis the opening of the trachea through which air enter the larynx
larynx the structure between the glottis and the trachea that contains the vocal cords
bronchus the passageway that branches from the trachea to the lungs
bronchiole the passageway that branches from each bronchus inside the lung into increasingly smaller, thin-walled tubes
alveolus a tiny sac, with a wall that is one cell thick, found at the end of a bronchiole; respiratory gases are exchanged in this sac
hemoglobin an iron-containing protein found in red blood cells, which binds to and transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body
Created by: honey.deering