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Biology SOL

Biology SOL Review

What is a hypothesis? A tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigation.
What is a theory? A theory is an explanation of a large body of information, experimental and inferential, and serves as an overarching framework for numerous concepts. It is subject to change as new evidence becomes available.
What is cell theory? Cell theory states that all living things are composed of cells and that cells come from other cells by the process of cell reproduction
What was the impact of the development and refinement of magnifying lenses and light microscopes have on cell theory? By making the observation and description of microscopic organisms and living cells possible at the microscopic level.
With advances in microscopy what can be observed at the cellular level? Observation of cell organelles and ultrastructure. Current technology allows the observation of cellular processes underlying both cell structure and function.
What is natural selection? Natural selection is a process by which organisms with traits well suited to an environment survive and reproduce at a greater rate than organisms less suited to that environment.
What did Pasteur and Koch conduct experimentation on? • Pasteur’s and Koch’s experimentation and hypotheses led to an understanding of the presence of microorganisms and their relationship to diseases.
What is germ theory? The understanding that many diseases are caused by microorganisms
Describe changes that have come from the acceptance of germ theory? Modern health practices emphasize sanitation, the safe handling of food and water, aseptic techniques to keep germs out of the body, and the development of vaccinations and other chemicals and processes to destroy microorganisms
What did scientists use to interpret DNA and discover the double helix structure? Interpretations of X-ray photographs of DNA were used to describe the shape and dimensions of the molecule
What did the double helix model of DNA explain to the scientists The double helix model explained how heredity information is transmitted and provided the basis for an explosion of scientific research in molecular genetics
What is 2/3's of a mass of a cell made up of? Water.
Most of the biochemical processes of life occur in what type of solution? A water solution
Why do lakes and oceans stabilize land and air temperatures? Water is able to absorb large amounts of heat.
What type of bonding do water molecules have? Water molecules are both cohesive and adhesive due to the nature of bonding (polar covalent and hydrogen bonding).
Does water absorb or release heat when it evaporates? Water absorbs heat when it evaporates, allowing organisms to release excess heat
What helps prevent lakes and oceans from freezing solid? The fact that the solid form of water, ice, floats.
What characteristics of water allows it to carry nutrients into and around cells and wastes away from cells? Water is able to dissolve many substances.
What is the pH scale range? 0 to 14
What is the pH of pure water? 7
What is a solution below 7 on the pH scale considered to be? Acidic
What is a solution above 7 on the pH scale considered to be? Basic
Why can organisms tolerate only small changes in pH? Because every cell has a particular pH at which it functions best
What are the main components of a living cell? The main components of a living cell are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur
What type of molecules found in cells, carry out most of the cell's work? Protein molecules. The function of each protein molecule depends on its specific conformation
What controls the chemical reactions inside of cells? The chemical reactions that occur inside cells are directly controlled by a large set of protein molecules called enzymes, whose functions depend on their specific shapes
What is the primary functions of carbohydrate macromolecules? The primary functions of carbohydrate macromolecules are to provide and store energy
What is the primary function of lipid macromolecules? The primary functions of lipid macromolecules are to insulate, store energy, and make up cell membranes.
How do nucleic acids control cell activities? Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) control cell activities by directing protein synthesis.
What are the jobs of proteins? Some proteins are structural (hair, nails). Others function in transport (hemoglobin), movement (muscle fibers and cytoskeletal elements), defense (antibodies), and regulation of cell functions (hormones and enzymes).
What is a protein? Proteins are polymers made by linking together amino acid monomers.
What is the job of enzymes? In living cells, enzymes control the rate of metabolic reaction by acting as catalysts.
What is the impact of temperature and pH on cell function? Most cells function best within a narrow range of temperature and pH. At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow. High temperatures or extremes of pH can irreversibly change the structure of proteins and alter their function.
How do plant cells and many microrganisms use solar energy? To combine molecules of carbon dioxide and water into complex, energy-rich organic compounds and release oxygen into the environment.
What process allows plant cells to use solar energy? Photosynthesis
What occurs in plant cells during photosynthesis? Cells trap energy from sunlight with chlorophyll and use the energy, carbon dioxide and water to produce energy-rich organic molecules (glucose) and oxygen.
What do eukaryotic cells do during cell respiration? Eukaryotic cells “burn” organic molecules with oxygen, which produces energy, carbon dioxide, and water.
What process inolves energy conversion in which light energy is converted to chemical energy in specialized cells? Photosynthesis.
In what form is energy transported within a cell? In the form of ATP
What occurs when cells need energy to do work? Certain enzymes release the energy stored in the chemical bonds in ATP.
What is the unifying theme in biology? The cell theory because it emphasizes the similiarity of all living things.
What are the simplest life forms exhibiting cellular structure? Prokaryotes
What were Earth's first cells? Prokaryotes
What are the 2 major forms of prokaryotic cells? Eubacteria and archaebacteria.
What is the Earth's most abundant inhabitants? Prokaryotes
What are eukaryotes? Eukaryotes arose from prokaryotes and developed into larger more complex organisms, from single-celled protists to multi-cellular fungi, plants, and animals
What are sobetween eukaryotes and prokaryotes? Several differences include size, genetic material surrounded by a nuclear membrane, and the addition of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
What are the cellular differences between plant and animal cells? The differences include the presence of a cell wall that gives the plant cell a defined shape, the presence of chloroplast, and the number of vacuoles
What is the basic unit of structure and function of all living things? Cells are the basic units of structure and function of all living things.
What are the hierarchical levels of organization? Molecular, cellular, organism, population, community, and ecosystem
What are the cellular activities necessary for life? Chemical reactions that facilitate acquiring energy, reproduction, and adaptation/maintaining homeostasis.
How is homeostatsis of a cell maintained? By a plasma membrane comprised of a variety of organic molecules that controls the movement of material in and out of the cell, communication between cells, and the recognition of cells to facilitate multiple metabolic functions.
What is the function of the ribosome? The site of protein synthesis.
What is the function of the nucleus? Contains DNA and is the site where RNA is made?
What is the function of mitochondria? The site of cell respiration.
What is the function of chloroplast? The site of photosynthesis
What is the function of endoplasmic reticulum? It transports materials through the cell.
What is the function of the Golgi? The site where cell products are packaged for export.
What is the function of lysosome? Contains the digestive enzyme.
What is the function of the cell membrane? Controls what enters and leaves the cell.
What is the function of the cell wall? To provide support for the cell.
How do single cell and multi cell organisms differ? A single-celled organism has to conduct all life processes by itself. A multicellular organism has groups of cells that specialize to perform specific functions
When does cell specialization occur? During the development of multi-cell organisms.
What does the fluid mosiac model of a membrane emphasize? The arrangement and function of a bilayer of phospholipids, transport proteins, and cholesterol.
Describe diffusion in cells? Diffusion occurs in cells when substances (oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts, sugars, amino acids) that are dissolved in water move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
What is osmosis? Osmosis refers to the movement of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of greater water concentration or pressure to an area of lesser water concentration or pressure.
What is active transport? Active transport refers to the movement of solid and liquid particles into and out of a cell by endocytosis and exocytosis
What is responsible for the "rough" appearance of endoplasmic reticulum? Ribosomes
The energy in the food produced by autotrophs or taken into the bodies of heterotrophs must be changed into a form that cells can use. What is the energy-transferring molecule used by cells? ATP
What is the first step in mitosis? Prophase
Escherichia coli is the scientific name of a bacterium. What category of classification is Escherichia? Genus
Tissue samples taken from the stomach and heart of a grasshopper would have the same DNA or metabolic rates? DNA
Why may unrelated or distantly related species come to resemble each other over many generations? Similiar environmental factors
Why are lipids and carbohydrates important in animal cells? They both store energy
Why are algae and multicellular plants autotrophs? Both capture sunlight to produce sugars.
What cellular structures are associated with movement in unicellular organisms? Flagella
What repackages proteins into forms the cells can use, expel, or keep stored? Golgi bodies
The organisms in a typical backyard are likely to include bacteria, grass, shrubs, trees, insects, spiders, birds, and small mammals. What do all of these organisms make up? A community
Which biochemical substance in the human body is NOT maintained at about a neutral pH? Stomach fluids
When there is a lower concentration of water outside a plant cell rather than inside a plant cell, what will tend to happen? The plant cell will lose water and wilt.
Amino acids link together by peptide bonds to form proteins. In which cellular organelles would this process occur? Ribosomes
What are most cellular processes regulated by? The action of enzymes
What carriers coded information from the nucleus of the cell? mRNA
Why are the chances of developing cancer, sickle-cell anemia, or diabetes higher if a family member also has the disorder? These disorders are genetically based.
Unlike plants, fungi cannot make their own food. Why? They lack chlorophyll.
What is a possible explanation for a set of observations? Hypothesis
After a set of observations is made, what is the next action to occur? Formulate a hypothesis.
What is any factor that influences the results of an experiment? Variable
What is the ratio of mass to volume known as? Density
What is the name of the study that is conducted in an organism's natural environment? Field study
If an organism is observed at 40x objective lens, what is the total magnification with the eyepiece factored in? 400x
What instrument separates molecules by size, shape and electrical charge? Gel electroresis
Which variable is set by the experimenter, and influences the results of the experiment? Independent Variable
If an experiment can be conducted multiple times, achieving the same results, what can be said about the experiment? Repeatibility
What instruments can study the surfaces of organisms? Scanning electron microscope
If a mixture of gas and liquid is collected, and the scientist would like to separate the two, what instrument would he most likely use? Chromatography
What German botanist first saw cell structure in plants? Schleiden
Which zoologist found that animals were made of cells? Schwann
Who saw that animal cells only came from animal cells and plant cells only came from plant cells? Virchow
What early scientist studied the 'empty chambers' of cork, which was later crucial in the development of the cell theory? Hooke
Who invented the light microscope, and was first to observe cells in living things? Anton von Leeuwenhoek
What is the term for a virus or organism that causes infectious disease? Pathogen
What scientist was the first to state that microbes could be the cause of disease? Pasteur
What are animals that carry genetic material or infectious pathogens, and consequently aid in the transmission of disease? Vector
What is a protein that interferes with the replication of viruses? Interferon
What is a protein produced in an effort to fight a certain pathogen? Antibody
If a specific protein blocked a virus from replicating its DNA, then what would that protein be considered? Antibody
Who are the two men largely responsible in developing the DNA model? Watson and Crick
What term is used to describe the shape of DNA? Double helix
What is the difference between RNA and DNA? DNA is a double helix, while RNA is a single strand.
Who worked with X-rays to show DNA's characteristic shape? Rosalind Franklin
What does the R in RNA stand for? Regulatory
What is the sugar found in DNA? Deoxyribose
Polymers are broken down into monomers by adding water molecules. This process is known as? Hydrolysis
Which process converts glucose into a usable energy form, ATP? Cellular respiration
Though they carry out many functions within cells, what is the enzymes' main function? Act as a biological catalyst
Created by: kseaver
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