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Biology SOL Review

Biology SOL Flashcard Review

What technologies made possible the observation and description of living things and organisms? Magnifying lenses and the light microscope
What is the cell theory? It states that all living things are made up of cells and that cells come from other cells by the process of reproduction.
The development of the cell theory was aided by the ability to make observations on a microscopic level.
Who’s experimentation and hypotheses led to an understanding of the presence of microorganisms and their relationship to diseases? Pasteur and Koch
The introduction of the germ theory led to the understanding that many diseases are caused by - microorganisms
What has resulted from the acceptance of the germ theory of disease? Changes in health practices - the emphasize sanitation, the safe handling of food and water, aseptic techniques to keep germs out of the body, and the development of vaccinations and other chemicals and processes to destroy microorganisms.
Once ____ was shown to be the genetic material, a race among scientists took place to work out its structure. DNA
Studies of the amounts of each DNA base in different organisms led to the concept of complementary base-paring
Interpretations of X-ray photographs of DNA were used to describe the shape and dimensions of the DNA molecule. An analysis of this and other available data led to a structural model for the DNA double helix
The _______ model explained how heredity information is transmitted and provided the basis for an explosion of scientific research in molecular genetics. double helix
______ is essential for life on Earth. Water
About how much of the mass of a cell is made up of water? two thirds
Most of the biochemical processes of life occur in ____ . water solutions
Water molecules are both cohesive and adhesive due to the nature of bonding
Water molecules are both ___ and ___ due to the nature of bonding. cohesive -- adhesive
What are two kinds of bonding that occur with water? polar covalent and hydrogen bonding
Water is able to absorb large amounts of _____ . heat
Because water is able to absorb large amounts of heat, lakes and oceans ______ air and land temperatures. stabilize
Why do we sweat? Water absorbs heat when it evaporates, allowing organisms to release excess heat.
Why don't lakes and oceans freeze solid? The solid form of water, ice, floats, preventing lakes and oceans from freezing solid.
Water is able to ____ many substances dissolve
Why is it important to cells that water is able to dissolve many substances? The water inside and outside of cells is able to carry nutrients into and around cells and wastes away from cells.
The water inside and outside of cells is able to carry ____ into and around cells and ____ away from cells. nutrients -- wastes
The pH scale ranges from ______ . 0 to 14.
The pH of pure water is _____ . 7
Substances added to water can lower or raise the pH. A solution with a pH below 7 is _____ . acidic
A solution with a pH above 7 is _____ . basic
Organisms can tolerate ______ in pH because every cell has a particular pH at which it functions best. only small changes
Organisms can tolerate only small changes in pH because changes in pH cause changes in _______ resulting in a change in activity. enzyme conformation
Plant cells and many microorganisms use solar energy to combine molecules of ______ and ______ into complex, energy-rich organic compounds. carbon dioxide - water
Plant cells and many microorganisms release _____ into the environment. oxygen
The process of ______ provides a vital connection between the sun and the energy needs of living systems. photosynthesis
_____ and _____ are complementary processes for cycling carbon dioxide and oxygen as well as transferring energy in ecosystems. Photosynthesis - cell respiration
Photosynthesis and cell respiration are complementary processes for cycling _____ and _____ as well as transferring energy in ecosystems. carbon dioxide and oxygen
During photosynthesis, cells use ___ to trap energy from sunlight. chlorophyll
During photosynthesis, cells trap energy from sunlight with chlorophyll and use the energy, carbon dioxide and water to produce energy-rich organic molecules (glucose) and oxygen.
During cell respiration, eukaryotic cells “burn” organic molecules with oxygen, which produces energy, carbon dioxide, and water
______ is the initial source of energy for most communities. Light
Photosynthesis involves an energy conversion in which ____ energy is converted to _____ energy in specialized cells. light -- chemical
Photosynthesis involves an energy conversion in which light energy is converted to chemical energy in specialized cells. These cells are found in _____ such as plants and some _____. autotrophs --- protists
Cells release the chemical energy stored in the products of photosynthesis. This energy is transported within the cell in the form of ______. ATP
When cells need energy to do work, certain _____ release the energy stored in the chemical bonds in ATP. enzymes
The ______ is the unifying theme in biology because it emphasizes the similarity of all living things. cell theory
The simplest life forms exhibiting cellular structure are the prokaryotes.
Cell _____ is one of the ways in which organisms differ from each other. structure
The diversity that exists ranges from simple _____ to complex _____. prokaryotic cells---- multi-cellular organisms.
Earth’s first cells were ______. prokaryotes
Prokaryotic cells exist in two major forms: eubacteria and archaebacteria.
The Earth’s most abundant inhabitants are prokaryotes
______ can survive in a wide range of environments and obtain energy in a variety of ways. Prokaryotes
______ arose from prokaryotes and developed into larger more complex organisms, from single-celled protists to multi-cellular fungi, plants, and animals. Eukaryotes
What are several differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes? Size; Eukaryotes - the genetic material surrounded by a nuclear membrane, and the addition of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
What are the differences between plant and animal cells? Plant cells include a cell wall that gives the plant cell a defined shape; chloroplasts; and the number of vacuoles (plants have one large vacuole, animal cells have many smaller vacuoles).
_____ are the basic units of structure and function of all living things. Cells
At each of the hierarchical levels of organization - molecular, cellular, organism, population, community, and ecosystem - structure is related to ______ . function
Cells contain specialized _______ to perform functions necessary for life. structures
What are some of the cellular activities necessary for life? chemical reactions for acquiring energy, reproduction, and adaptation/maintaining homeostasis.
How is homeostasis of a cell is maintained? by a plasma membrane that controls the movement of material in and out of the cell, communication between cells, and the recognition of cells to facilitate multiple metabolic functions.
What is the function of the cell nucleus? contains DNA; site where RNA is made
What is the function of the ribosome? site of protein synthesis
What is the function of the mitochondria? site of cell respiration
What is the function of the chloroplasts? site of photosynthesis
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum? transports materials through the cell
What is the function of the Golgi site where cell products are packaged for export
What is the function of the lysosomes? contains digestive enzymes
What is the function of the cell membrane? controls what enters and leaves the cell
What is the function of the cell wall? provides support
Some organisms exist as a single cell, while others are composed of many cells, each _____ to perform distinct metabolic functions. specialized
The basic processes necessary for living things to survive are _____ for a single cell as they are for a more complex organism. the same
A _____organism has to conduct all life processes by itself. single-celled
A ______ organism has groups of cells that specialize to perform specific functions. multicellular
Cell specialization occurs during the development of a multicellular organism. The genetic information necessary for all cellular functions remains ________ but may not be used. in each cell
The model of a membrane includes a: bilayer of phospholipids, transport proteins, and cholesterol
Diffusion occurs in cells when substances (oxygen, carbon dioxide, salts, sugars, amino acids) that are dissolved in water move from an area of ___ ____ to an area of ___ ____. higher concentration - lower concentration
Osmosis refers to the movement of water molecules through a semi-permeable membrane from an area of _______to an area _________. greater water concentration or pressure
Active transport refers to the movement of solid and liquid particles into and out of a cell by endocytosis and exocytosis
Organ systems function and interact to maintain a stable internal environment that can resist disturbance from within or without. This is called: homeostasis
For the body to use food for energy, what must happen to the food? the food must first be digested into molecules that are absorbed and transported to cells, where the food is used for energy and for repair and growth
To burn food for the release of energy, _____ must be supplied to cells and _____ removed. oxygen -- carbon dioxide
The respiratory system responds to changing demands by increasing or decreasing ______ in order to maintain _______. breathing rate --- homeostasis
The circulatory system, which moves all of these substances to or from cells, responds to changing demands by increasing or decreasing ____ ____ and ____ ____ in order to maintain ______. heart rate and blood flow --- homeostasis
The urinary system disposes of dissolved ___ _____. waste molecules
The intestinal tract removes ______ wastes; solid
The skin and lungs rid the body of _____ energy. heat
Specialized cells of the ___ ____ and the molecules they produce are designed to protect against organisms and substances that enter from outside the body and against some cancer cells that arise from within. immune system
Communication between cells is required for coordination of body functions. How do cells communicate? The nerves communicate with electrochemical signals, hormones circulate through the blood, and some cells secrete substances that spread only to nearby cells.
Nerves communicate with electrochemical signals
What are some environmental factors that impact human health? diet, exercise, sleep, stress, toxic substances that enter the body, viruses, and other living organisms that infect the body
Genetic predisposition towards diseases impacts human health. Awareness of genetic predisposition allows individuals to: make lifestyle changes that can enhance quality of life.
Viruses ____ share many of the characteristics of living organisms. do not
Viruses _____ cells are not
Basic viral structure consists of a nucleic acid core surrounded by a protein coat.
Viruses can reproduce only inside a -. living cell, the host cell
The viral reproductive process includes the following steps: 1) A virus must insert its genetic material into the host cell. 2)The viral genetic material takes control of the host cell and uses it to produce viruses. 3)The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell.
All living cells come from other living cells.
During mitosis, the nucleus of the cell _____, forming divides ----two nuclei with identical genetic information
Many organisms are capable of combining ____ ____ from two parents to produce offspring. genetic information
Sex cells are produced through meiosis
Meiosis allows sexually reproducing organisms to produce genetically differing offspring
The many body cells of an organism can be _____ to perform different functions, even though they are all descended from a single cell and contain essentially the same genetic information. specialized
____ produces two genetically identical cells. Mitosis
Meiosis occurs in sexual reproduction when a ____ germ cell produces four _____ daughter cells that can mature to become ____ (sperm or egg). diploid ---haploid gametes
A typical cell goes through a process of growth, development, and reproduction called the cell cycle
Mitosis and meiosis refer to division of the nuclear material
The division of the cytoplasm and organelles is called cytokinesis
What are the stages of mitosis? prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Geneticists apply mathematical principles of ____ to Mendel’s laws of heredity in order to predict the results of simple genetic crosses. probability
The genetic make-up of an organism genotype
The organism’s appearance based on its genes phenotype
____ individuals have two identical alleles for a particular trait. Homozygous
___ individuals have contrasting alleles for a particular trait. Heterozygous
When one allele masks the effect of another, that allele is called ____ and the other___ dominant --- recessive
When an intermediate phenotype occurs and no allele dominates, the result is incomplete dominance
Genetically ___ populations are more likely to survive changing environments. diverse
What makes genetic diversity? Recombination and mutation
New gene combinations can either have little effect, produce organisms that are better suited to their environment,can be deleterious (not good)
The sorting and recombination of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of gene combinations in the offspring of any two parents
Genes can be altered by: inserting, deleting, or substituting DNA bases
An altered gene may be passed on to every cell that develops from it, causing an altered phenotype
An altered phenotype may be: beneficial or detrimental
Sometimes entire chromosomes can be added or deleted, resulting in: a genetic disorder
Trisomy 21 is: a genetic disorder - Down syndrome
DNA stores the information for directing the construction of: proteins within a cell
_____ determine the phenotype of an organism. Proteins
The genetic information encoded in DNA molecules provides instructions for: assembling protein molecules
The genetic code is virtually the same for all life forms. (true or false) true
Before a cell divides, the instructions are ____ so that each of the two new cells gets all the necessary information for carrying on life functions. duplicated
The genetic code is a sequence of ___ ____ in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. DNA nucleotides
____ is a polymer consisting of nucleotides. DNA
A DNA nucleotide is identified by the base it contains: adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) or thymine (T).
DNA is a _____-______ molecule. double-stranded
Like rungs on a ladder, the DNA strands are connected by: complementary nucleotide pairs (A-T and C-G)
The ladder (DNA strands) twists to form a _____ ____ . double helix
The genetic code is the sequence of: DNA nucleotides
In order for cells to make proteins, the DNA code must be: transcribed (copied) to messenger RNA (mRNA)
The mRNA carries the code from the nucleus to: the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
____ is a single-stranded polymer of four nucleotide monomers. RNA
A RNA nucleotide is identified by the base it contains: adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) or uracil (U).
At the ribosome, amino acids are linked together to form: specific proteins
The amino acid sequence is directed by the: mRNA molecule
Cells pass on their genetic code by: replicating (copying) their DNA
During DNA replication, enzymes _____________ and each strand serves as a template for building a new DNA molecule. unwind and unzip the double helix
Free nucleotides bond to the template (A-T and C-G) forming a complementary strand. The final product of replication is: two identical DNA molecules
DNA technologies allow scientists to: identify, study, and modify genes
Genetic engineering techniques are used in: a variety of industries, in agriculture, in basic research, and in medicine
An example of the application of DNA technology is: Forensic (criminal) identification
Some useful products that might be developed through genetic engineering could be: human growth hormone, insulin, and pest- and disease-resistant fruits and vegetables
A pseudo-science movement throughout the twentieth century, worldwide as well as in Virginia, that demonstrated a misuse of the principles of heredity was: Eugenics
What was eugenics? Selective pro-creation (Hitler)
What is the Human Genome Project? A collaborative effort to map the entire gene sequence of organisms.
Why will it be useful to map the entire gene sequence of organisms? This information will be useful in detection, prevention, and treatment of many genetic diseases.
What is cloning? The production of genetically identical cells and/or organisms.
The basic unit of classification species
A standard way of identifying a species with a scientific two-word name Binomial nomenclature
In binomial nomenclature, the first word is the ___ __ and the second the _____ ______. genus name species name
A species is defined as a group of organisms that has the ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
Information about relationships among living organisms and those that inhabited Earth in the comes from comparing developmental stages of organisms and examining and interpreting the fossil record.
Similarities among organisms on the structural and metabolic levels are reflected in the large degree of similarity in proteins and nucleic acids of different organisms.
Although there is not a complete record of ancient life for the past 3.5 billion years, a great deal of modern knowledge about the history of life comes from the fossil record.
A fossil is any evidence of an organism that lived long ago.
Scientists have used the fossil record to construct a history of life on Earth.
Genetic mutations and variety produced by sexual reproduction allow for diversity within a given population.
A change in a gene over time can be caused by: many factors
How long may it take for structural adaptations to develop? Millions of years
How long it takes structural adaptations to develop depends on: the rate of adaptation, the rate of reproduction, and the environmental factors present
Groups of interbreeding individuals that live in the same place at the same time are: populations
Populations are groups of interbreeding individuals that: live in the same place at the same time
The components of the environment that restrict the growth of populations are called: limiting factors
The number of organisms that can be supported by the resources in an ecosystem is a limiting organization is: carrying capacity
The nonliving elements in an ecosystem, such as temperature, moisture, air, salinity, and pH are: abiotic factors
All the living organisms that inhabit the environment, including predators, food sources, and competitors are: biotic factors
A close and permanent relationship between organisms of two different species is called: symbiosis
Three types of symbiosis are: mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism
Ecosystems demonstrate an exchange of _____ and _____ among inhabiting organisms. energy and nutrients
The gradual change in an ecosystem that occurs as communities slowly replace one another is known as ecological succession.
An ecosystem consists of all the __ __ and the __ environment in a given geographic area. interacting species abiotic
____ cycle through an ecosystem. Nutrients
The most common examples the nutrients that cycle through an ecosystem are: carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and water
Flow of energy occurs between ____ _____ in all ecosystems. trophic levels
The flow of energy between trophic levels in an ecosystem can be depicted in these ways: food chain,food web, pyramid of energy, pyramid of biomass, pyramid of numbers.
A series of changes in a community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones is known as: ecological succession
When succession slows down and a stable community is established a climax community occurs
The ___ ___ is made up of organisms that are successful at competing for resources in a given environment. climax community
The climax community in most of Virginia is a: deciduous oak-hickory (hardwood) forest.
As the human population increases, so does human: impact on the environment
Name some of the human activities that have changed the Earth’s land, oceans, and atmosphere. reducing the amount of forest cover,increasing the amount and variety of chemicals released into the atmosphere, and intensive farming
A _____ can be supported, modified, or rejected based on collected data. hypothesis
A tentative explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigation is a: hypothesis
An explanation of a large body of information, experimental and inferential, that serves as an overarching framework for numerous concepts is a: theory
A ____ is subject to change as new evidence becomes available. theory
Created by: kseaver



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