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CB3_central dogma

the central dogma of molecular biology

Central Dogma theory explaining how information flows within a biological system
DNA replication it is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
Transcription the DNA sequence of a gene is copied to make a primary transcript, the pre-mRNA, by the RNA polymerase.
Messenger RNA RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Translation it is the process of translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis.
Gene A portion of DNA providing instructions for making a functional product (RNA or protein)
Polypeptide A chain of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds
Transfer RNA a small RNA molecule, consisting of a strand of nucleotides folded into a clover-leaf shape, that picks up an unattached amino acid within the cell cytoplasm and conveys it to the ribosome for protein synthesis.
Ribosomal RNA it is the RNA component of ribosomes, the molecular machines that catalyze protein synthesis.
Gene expression The conversion of the information from the gene into mRNA via transcription and then to protein via translation resulting in a functional product.
Semi-conservative related to DNA replication, implies that each strand in the DNA double helix acts as a template for the synthesis of a new, complementary strand. The new DNA molecule have 50% old DNA and 50% newly synthetized DNA.
DNA polymerase An enzyme that is responsible for synthesizing DNA; it adds nucleotides to the 3’end of growing DNA strand.
RNA primer A short stretch of RNA annealed to the DNA template, from which the DNA polymerase can start adding DNA nucleotides
Template A molecule providing the information for the synthesis of another molecule. In DNA replication, each strand of the double helix acts as a template for the synthesis of a new double helix.
Proofreading The property of certain polymerases, to remove erroneously introduced bases and to replace them with the correct bases.
Nucleotide The basic building block of nucleic acids; it is an organic compound made up of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group.
3' end the 3′-end of a strand is so named due to it terminating with the hydroxyl group (-OH) of the third carbon in the sugar-ring.
5' end the 5′-end of a strand is so named due to it terminating with the phosphate group attached to the fifth carbon in the sugar-ring.
Helicase An enzyme that unwinds the two strands of DNA
Origins of replication Specific locations on the genome from which the DNA replication gets started
Replication forks site where double-stranded DNA splits apart into 2 single strands. It has a Y-shaped structure.
Primase enzyme that synthetize RNA primers
Anti-parallel In the DNA double helix, one strand runs in the 5’ to 3’ direction, while the other runs in the 3’ to 5’ direction
Leading strand Strand of DNA that is replicated continuously.
Lagging strand strand of DNA that is replicated discontinuously, one fragment after the other.
Okazaki fragments short, newly synthesized DNA fragments that are formed on the lagging template strand during DNA replication
Exonuclease Enzyme that removes the RNA primers used during DNA replication
DNA Ligase Seals the cuts that remain after the RNA primers are substituted with DNA nucleotides.
RNA Polymerase An enzyme that synthesizes a complementary RNA strand from a DNA template. It is the main player in transcription.
Primary transcript A single-stranded RNA product synthesized by the transcription of gene, before being processed to produce a mature RNA product.
Promoter A region on the genome to which transcription factors in order to initiate transcription of specific genes.
Transcription factor proteins that recognize and bind to promoter regions, and then recruit the RNA polymerase to start transcription.
Template strand or anti-sense strand It is the DNA strand that the RNA polymerase uses as template to produce the primary transcript.
Coding strand or sense strand It is the DNA strand that the RNA polymerase DOESN’T use as template to produce the primary transcript. It is complementary to the anti-sense strand, therefore identical to the pre-mRNA.
Terminator sequence DNA sequence at the end of a gene that causes RNA polymerase to stop transcription.
Pre-mRNA The primary transcript of a protein-coding gene
5’ cap A modified guanine nucleotide that is added at the 5’end of the mRNA to protect the transcript from being broken down.
Poly-A tail many adenine nucleotides (100-200) are added at the 3’end of the transcript to make it more stable.
Splicing Process in which some sequences of the primary transcript called INTRONS are removed from the pre-RNA
Introns non-coding sequences of the pre-mRNA that are removed during splicing
Exons coding sequences of the pre-mRNA that are kept and stuck together during splicing. Only the exons of a gene code for a protein sequence.
Alternative splicing Process in which more than one mature mRNA is made from the same gene, through the retention of different sets of exons.
Mature mRNA A pre-mRNA molecule becomes a mature mRNA molecule after having undergone processing, which include the addition of a 5’cap, a polyA tail and splicing.
Genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins by living cells.
Codon a specific sequence of three consecutive nucleotides that is part of the genetic code and that specifies a particular amino acid in a protein.
Redundant The genetic code is redundant. Most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon.
Unambiguous The genetic code is unambiguous. Each codon codes only for one amino acid
Anticodon is a sequence of 3 nucleotides that is complementary to a codon. Anticodons are found in tRNAs, and allow the tRNAs to bring the correct amino acid during protein synthesis.
A-site slot in the ribosome where the tRNA bringing the next amino acid to add binds
P-site slot in the ribosome that contains the tRNA with the growing polypeptide chain attached to it
E-site slot in the ribosome that permit the exit of the tRNA that has given the amino acid he carried to the newly synthetized protein.
Methionine it’s an amino acid coded by the start codon AUG.
Start codon It is the first codon of a mRNA transcript translated by a ribosome. It codes for a methionine.
Peptide bond The covalent bond joining two amino acids
N-terminus The start of a protein, it is the end having a free amino group (-NH2)
C-terminus The end of a protein, it is the end having a free carboxyl group (-COOH)
stop codon In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within of the messenger RNA that signals the termination of protein synthesis.
release factor is a protein that recognize a stop codon in an mRNA sequence and make the ribosome disassembles from the mRNA.
Gene regulation mechanisms that control and determine which genes are switched on and off within a cell, and when, how long, and to what extent the genes are expressed.
Chromatin The DNA double helix in the cell nucleus is packaged by special proteins termed histones. The formed protein/DNA complex is called chromatin.
Created by: SaraLUNEX