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Bio Genetics vocab

Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
autosome any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
codominance Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele
dihybrid a hybrid that is heterozygous for alleles of two different genes
dominant allele an allele that can take over a recessive allele
genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organism. Often contrasted with phenotype.
heterozygous an individual having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes, and so giving rise to varying offspring
homozygous an individual having two identical alleles of a particular gene or genes and so breeding true for the corresponding characteristic
monohybrid a hybrid that is heterozygous with respect to a specified gene.
multiple allele an allele of a genetic locus having more than two allelic forms within a population
phenotype the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
punnet square a diagram that is used to predict an outcome of a particular cross or breeding experiment
recessive allele one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus
sex chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds
sex-linked trait are those found on either the X or Y chromosomes and include hemophilia and fragile X syndrome.
test cross test-cross-a cross between an organism whose genotype for a certain trait is unknown and an organism
apoptosis the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development
cell cycle the life cycle of a dividing cell
centriole a minute cylindrical organelle near the nucleus in animal cells, occurring in pairs and involved in the development of spindle fibers in cell division.
centromere the point on a chromosome by which it is attached to a spindle fiber during cell division.
chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed
chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
crossing-over the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring.
cytokinesis the cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.
diploid (2n) chromosome number
gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
haploid (n) chromosome number
homologous chromosomes are chromosome pairs, one from each parent, that are similar in length, gene position, and centromere location.
meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores
mitosis a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth
nondisjunction the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division
somatic cell any cell of a living organism other than the reproductive cells.
synapsis the fusion of chromosome pairs at the start of meiosis.
Created by: rc.squad
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