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CB1_cell structures

cellular structures

TermDefinition
Cholesterol a steroid compound that maintain the fluidity and the integrity of the plasma membrane.
Metabolism The sum of the biochemical reactions occurring in an organism
Anabolism When organisms make complex molecules from simpler ones
Catabolism When organisms make simple molecules from complex ones
Homeostasis Maintenance of a stable internal environment, even in the face of changing external environment
Prokaryotic cells Simple single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryotic cell cells containing a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and numerous membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and lysosomes.
Plasma membrane Outer covering that separates the cell’s interior from its surrounding environment, composed of a double layer of phospholipids.
Cytoplasm It is the space between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It consists of a jelly-like water solution, the cytosol, and the cellular structures suspended in it
Cytosol It is a jelly-like fluid in which organelles of the cell are suspended
DNA Genetic material of the cell
Ribosome Molecular machines that synthesize proteins
Nucleus the part of the cell that contains genetic material and is enclosed in a double membrane
Organelle Compartments with specialized functions that float in the cytosol
Phospholipid Made up of a hydrophilic head containing a glycerol and a phosphate group, and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails
phospholipid bilayer a two-layered structure of phospholipids that form a cell membrane. The hydrophobic fatty acid tails face inward and the hydrophilic phosphate end faces outward.
Semi-permeable allowing certain substances to pass through it, but not others
Channel Membrane protein that form a pore to allow molecules to pass across the membrane
Transporter a protein which moves molecules through a membrane down their concentration gradient.
Receptor protein which has an affinity for a specific extracellular ligand and causes a specific reaction inside the cell.
Glycoprotein a protein with a carbohydrate group attached to the polypeptide chain.
Enzyme a protein which speed up biochemical reaction by reducing the activation energy without being consumed by it.
Chromosome linear DNA molecule bound to protein
nuclear envelope composed of two membranes. The external one is in continuity with the endoplasmic reticulum
Nuclear pores opening ensuring communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Nucleolus zone in the nucleus where ribosomes are produced and assembled
Endoplasmic reticulum network of membranous tubules and flattened sacs that plays a key role in the modification of proteins and the synthesis of lipids.
Rough ER endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes attached to its cytoplasmic surface. Inside the ER the proteins fold and undergo modifications
Smooth ER endoplasmic reticulum that has no ribosomes attached and is continuous with rough ER. Important for the synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and steroid hormones, for detoxification of medications and poisons and for the storage of calcium ions
Vesicle A membrane-bound sac in eukaryotic cells that stores or transports materials within the cytoplasm
Golgi apparatus Organelle made up of flattened discs of membrane, called cisternae. It is responsible for sorting, tagging, packaging and distribution of lipids and proteins.
Cisternae a flattened membrane sac of the Golgi apparatus. Cisternae pack and modify proteins and polysaccharides.
Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of enzymes capable of breaking down all types of biological polymers. They function as the digestive system of the cell.
Mitochondria is a double-membrane bound organelle found in the cytoplasm, containing its own DNA. They produce energy in the form of ATP, store calcium for cell signaling activities, generate heat, and mediate programmed cell death.
Cristae The inner membrane of the mitochondria, with many inward protrusions that increase surface area
Intermembrane space The space between the two membranes in the mitochondria
Mitochondrial matrix The compartment enclosed by the inner membrane in the mitochondria
Cytoskeleton Network of filaments in cells. Has three types of protein fibers; microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules
Microfilaments Made of actin monomers. They assemble and disassemble quickly. The play an important role in cell movement, cytokinesis and cell contractility.
Intermediate filaments Made of multiple strands of fibrous proteins wound together. They are permanent structures that maintain cell shape and anchor organelles in place.
Microtubules Made of tubulin proteins, they grow and disassemble quickly. They provide a platform for the transport of vesicles, they are essential for splitting chromosomes in cell division and they form cilia and flagella
Centriole Cylinder of nine triplets of microtubules, held together by supporting proteins
Centrosome It is composed of two centrioles perpendicular to each other. This structure acts as microtubule organizing centers in animal cells, providing anchoring sites for microtubules
Flagella Long, hair-like structures that extend from the cell-surface and are used to move an entire cell, such as a sperm cells
Cilia Short, hair-like structures that appear in large numbers on the cell’s surface. Their beating helps cells move materials across the surface of the cell.
Cholesterol a steroid compound that maintain the fluidity and the integrity of the plasma membrane.
Created by: SaraLUNEX