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CB1_cell structures

cellular structures

TermDefinition
Cholesterol a steroid compound that maintain the fluidity and the integrity of the plasma membrane.
Metabolism The sum of the biochemical reactions occurring in an organism
Homeostasis Maintenance of a stable internal environment, even in the face of changing external environment
Prokaryotic cells Simple single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Eukaryotic cell cells containing a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and numerous membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and lysosomes.
Plasma membrane Double layer of phospholipids that separates the cell’s interior from its surrounding environment
Cytoplasm It is the space between the cell membrane and the nucleus.
Cytosol It is a jelly-like fluid in which organelles of the cell are suspended
Ribosome Molecular machines that synthesize proteins
Nucleus Organelle that contains genetic material and is enclosed in a double membrane
Phospholipid Made up of a hydrophilic head containing a glycerol and a phosphate group, and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails
phospholipid bilayer a two-layered structure of phospholipids that form a cell membrane. The hydrophobic fatty acid tails face inward and the hydrophilic phosphate end faces outward.
nuclear envelope composed of two membranes. The external one is in continuity with the endoplasmic reticulum
Nuclear pores opening ensuring communication between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
Nucleolus zone in the nucleus where ribosomes are produced and assembled
Endoplasmic reticulum network of membranous tubules and flattened sacs that plays a key role in protein folding and the synthesis of lipids.
Rough ER endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes attached to its cytoplasmic surface.
Smooth ER endoplasmic reticulum that has no ribosomes attached and is continuous with rough ER. Important for the synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids and for the storage of calcium ions in muscle cells.
Vesicle A membrane-bound sac in eukaryotic cells that stores or transports materials within the cytoplasm
Golgi apparatus Organelle made up of flattened discs of membrane, called cisternae. It is responsible for modifying, sorting, tagging, packaging and distribution of lipids and proteins.
Cisternae a flattened membrane sac of the Golgi apparatus.
Lysosomes are membrane-enclosed organelles that contain an array of enzymes capable of breaking down all types of biological polymers.
Mitochondria They are double-membrane bound organelles that produce energy in the form of ATP.
Cristae Protrusion of the inner membrane of mitochondria
Intermembrane space The space between the two membranes in the mitochondria
Mitochondrial matrix The compartment enclosed by the inner membrane in the mitochondria
Cytoskeleton Network of filaments in cells. Has three types of protein fibers; microfilaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules
Microfilaments Made of actin monomers. Role in cell movement, cytokinesis and cell contractility.
Intermediate filaments Made of multiple strands of fibrous proteins wound together. They maintain cell shape and anchor organelles in place.
Microtubules Made of tubulin proteins. They provide a platform for the transport of vesicles, they are essential for splitting chromosomes in cell division and they form cilia and flagella
Centriole Cylinder of nine triplets of microtubules, held together by supporting proteins
Centrosome It is composed of two centrioles perpendicular to each other. This structure organise the microtubule network in animal cells.
Flagella Long, hair-like structures that extend from the cell-surface and are used to move an entire cell, such as a sperm cells
Cilia Short, hair-like structures that appear in large numbers on the cell’s surface. Their beating helps cells move materials across the surface of the cell.
Created by: SaraLUNEX
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