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Chapter 4 Perio

Power Point

Morphotype-Cocci-characteristics spherical, streptococci most common
Morphotype-Bacilli or Rods-Charact. rectangular
Morphotype-Filaments-Charact. thread like branching rods
Morphotype-Fusiforms-charact. thread like rods with tapered ends
Morphotype-Spirochetes-charact. spiral
Polysaccharide and the Peptoglycan layer are gram negative or positive? Gram positive
Glucans makes up capsuleBacterial adherence & aggregation Polysaccharide
thick, composed of repeating units of two amino sugars; this is broken by Lysozyme, enzyme found in saliva and causes some bacterial lysis, thus providing some self-cleansing effect Peptoglycan layer
Receptor proteinsLipopolysaccharidesgram neg. or pos.? Gram negative outer membrane
All gram_______ periodontal organisms considered to be pathogens release toxin filled vesicles negative
-require oxygen for growth Aerobes
-do not need oxygen to survive Anaerobes
-can survive with or without oxygen Facultative anaerobic organisms
-can’t survive in oxygen environment Obligate anaerobes
-requires or perfers carbon dioxide for growth Capnophiles
________ are fermentative or saccharolytic (get energy from sugars Gram +
________ are nonfermentative or asaccharolytic (get energy from amino acids, and proteins Gram –
Facultative: A.ActinomycetemcomitansAnaerobic: P.Gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum Rods Nonmotile
Veillonella alkalescens Cocci Anaerobic
Treponema denticola Spirochetes Anaerobic, Motile
Actinomyces israelii and naeslundii>>facultativeCorynebacterium matruchotii>>>facultativeEubacterim>>>anaerobicLactobacillus>>>facultative (straight rod) Rods Irregular Morphologic Features
Streptococcus>>>facultativePeptostreptococcus micros>>>anaerobic Cocci
Majority of micro-organisms are gram + and members of the streptococcus family Dorsum of the tongue
Bacteria associated with halitosis and perio p.gingivalis Dorsum of the tongue
50% of malodor to plaque biofilm is found on the tongue Dorsum of the tongue
Stretptococci predominant type of organism Mucosa
Clears and translocates biofilms from within the oral cavity; antimicrobial proteins in help regulate microbe attachment to oral cavity surfaces Saliva
supra-gingival biofilm is difficult to detect without dye solution; as it grows it becomes more visible. Sub-gingival can’t be seen unless you remove it with an instrument Supra and Subgingival tooth surfaces
Tenacious membranous film that forms on teeth, restorations, calculus, and other solid surfaces Pellicle
Abrasive agents remove, tooth brushing does NOTReforms within minutes Pellicle
Colonization of bacteria is influenced by pellicleChemical composition is similar to that of saliva in that is forms salivary glycoproteins Pellicle
Do all bacteria available in saliva can attach to the pellicle; formed from glycoproteins that selectively bind to the tooth? no
-located on cell surface, usually on fimbriae or pilli Adhesins
-recognize and link specific carbohydrate structures in the glycoproteins of the pellicle; these interactions promote the attachment of S. mutans and S.sanguis Lectins
___________ can also be inhibited by certain salivary components that bind to bacterial surfaces and coat them, blocking their surface receptors Adherence
______________is secreted by the salivary glands and is the predominant antibody in saliva; it coats the bacterial surfaces and prevents the attachment to the tooth surface Immunoglobulin A
Anaerobic, gram-Gingival crevicular fluid-volume is increased with inflammation Subgingival environment
-associated subgingival plaque-bacteria are densely packed adjacent to the pellicle covering the tooth surface. Tooth
-associated subgingival plaque- no defined intercellular matrix; bacteria loosely adherent to surface Tissue
Gingival health-gram ____, facultative anaerobes,cocci most predominant___of flora gram + 2/3
-P.gingivalis most important pathogen, pt’s have high amounts of gram – organisms and spirochetes; predominant organism is gram – anaerobic rods Periodontitis
Characterized by a RAPID destruction of periodontal attachment over a short period of time Localized Aggressive Periodontitis
Usually around the permanent incisors and first molars in otherwise healthy children or teenagers with little plaque or inflammation Localized Aggressive Periodontitis
Genetics suggested because of familial patternOld school referred to as Localized Juvenile perio, no longer accepted by APA Localized Aggressive Periodontitis
Gram – rods dominateA. actinomycetemcomitans major pathogen Localized Aggressive Periodontitis
Similar to LAP, but in adultsInvolves most, if not all teethGram – rods predominateAntimicrobial therapy with SRP used for treatment Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis
Characterized by necrotic, ulcerative lesions of the interdental papillae, severe pain, rapid loss of supporting structure, and significant halitosis NUG and NUP
Harbor large numbers of spirochetes and P. Intermedia, with gram – rods accounting for more than 50% if the bacterial population NUG and NUP
what Must be close to tissue and able to withstand forces of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid Tissue proximity
Overcome system’s self defense mechanisms Evasion of host defenses
P.gingivalis produces collagenase which degrades collagen tissues; A.actinomycetemcomitans release a bone resorbing toxin Tissue destruction Direct effects-
microbial products activate immune inflammatory reactions, which cause tissue destruction Indirect effects-
-the bacteria that colonize plaque in the first few hrs of growth do not possess the same pathogenic potential as the bacteria that dominate in plaque once it has accumulated for more than ______ hrs. Plaque control, 24
- frequent recall intervals for professional plaque control are effective b/c physical disruption of plaque biofilm converts the pathogenic flora back to a flora more compatible with health. Therapy
Created by: TinaHygiene