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Chapter 6

Meiosis and Mandel

QuestionAnswer
somatic cell body cells that make up most tissues and organs
gamete sex cells
homologous chromosome two chromosomes that have the same length/ general appearance
autosome chromosomes that contain genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of an organism
sex chromosome directly control development of sexual characteristics
sexual reproduction involves fusion of two gametes
fertilization actual fusion of egg and sperm cell
diploid cell has two copies of each chromosome
haploid cell has only one copy of each chromosome
meiosis form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells
gametogenesis production of gametes
sperm male gamete
egg female gamete
polar body cells with little more than DNA that are eventually broken down
trait distinguishing characteristics that are inherited
genetics study of biological inheritance patterns and variation in organisms
purebred line of a self-pollinated organism
cross the mating of two organisms
law of segregation Mendel's two key conclusions
gene piece of DNA that provides a set of instructions to a cell to make a certain protein
allele any of the alternative forms of a gene that may occur at a specific locus
homozygous two of the same alleles at a specific locus
heterozygous two different alleles at a specific locus
genome organism's genetic material
genotype genetic makeup of a specific set of genes
phenotype physical characteristics of an individual organism
dominant allele that is expressed when two different alleles/ two dominant alleles are present
recessive allele that is expressed only when two copies are present
Punnett square grid system for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross
monohybrid cross cross that examines the inheritance of only one specific trait
testcross cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an organism with the recessive phenotype
dihybrid cross crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits
law of independent assortment states that allele pairs separate independently from each other during meiosis
probability likelihood that a particular event will occur
crossing over exchange of chromosome segments between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis I
genetic linkage genes located closer together tend to be inherited together
Created by: kaseywallace