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Bio lab final


Magnification vs. Resolution Magnification enlarges a specimen in the field of view, whereas resolution is distinguishing two points as separate
Describe what a buffer does to keep the pH of solution stable A buffer takes in excess H+ or OH- to maintain the pH of a substance
What is the H+ of a solution with a pH of 3? What is the OH of the substance? H+ = 1*10^-3m OH=1*10^11m
Which test would you use to determine if starch was present in the solution? Logol's Iodine
If starch is present in a solution, what color will the solution form when you add lugol's iodine? a dark blue/ almost black
What is a negative result of lugol's iodine (starch not being present) copper/ yellow / orangey color
What is the difference between an independent and a dependent variable ? The independent variable is what is changed and tested in an experiment. The dependent variable is what's measured as a result of the independent variable
What test would you use to determine if amino acids are present in a mixture? ninhdryin test
If filter paper turns purple when biuret's reagent is added, what is indicated? amino acids are present
If a mixture turns purple when adding biuret's reagent, can you be sure that no proline is present ? No because proline doesn't affect color change because it doesn't react with ninhydrin
Solution A: pH = 5.0 Solution B: [H+]=1*10^-6M T or F : Solution B contains more H+ than Solution A false
Solution A: pH = 5.0 Solution B: [H+]=1*10^-6M T or F : Solution B contains 1*10^-8 OH ions true
Solution A: pH = 5.0 Solution B: [H+]=1*10^-6M T or F: Solution A contains 1*10^-5 H+ True
Solution A: pH = 5.0 Solution B: [H+]=1*10^-6M T or F: Solution B is more acidic than Solution A false
Solution A: pH = 5.0 Solution B: [H+]=1*10^-6M T or F: Solution A and B differ in their H+ by a factor of 100 true
The prescence of what should speed up the process of osmosis aquaporins ( proteins that form water channels in the membrane)
What does benedicts reagent test for? reducing sugars
What does a positive result of benedicts reagent look like? yellow/ orange
what does a negative benedicts test look like? blue
Which organelle is most abundant in the cells of the Elodea plant? What is the function? Chloroplasts ; photosynthesis , se light energy to make glucose
Celery stalks that are immersed in fresh water for several hours become stiff and hard. Similar stalks left in a 0.15 M salt solution become limp and soft. From this we can deduce that The fresh water is hypotonic and the salt solution is hypertonic to the cells of the celery stalks
If an animal cell was placed in a hypertonic solution, what is the best prediction of what would happen? The cell will shrivel and possibly die due to loss of water by osmosis
Present in prokaryotes: cell wall yes
Present in prokaryotes: central vacuole no
Present in prokaryotes: chloroplasts no
Present in prokaryotes: cytoplasm no
Present in prokaryotes: DNA yes
Present in prokaryotes: nucleus no
Present in prokaryotes: nucleoid yes
Present in prokaryotes: mitochondria yes
Present in prokaryotes: plasmid yes
Present in prokaryotes: plasmodesmata no
Present in prokaryotes: ribosomes no
Present in prokaryotes: peptidoglycan yes
Present in prokaryotes: pasma membrane yes
Present in animal cells : cell wall no
Present in animal cells : central vacuole no
Present in animal cells : chloroplasts no
Present in animal cells : cytoplasm yes
Present in animal cells : DNA yes
Present in animal cells : nucleus yes
Present in animal cells : nucleoid yes
Present in animal cells : mitochondria yes
Present in animal cells : plasmid no
Present in animal cells : plasmodesmata no
Present in animal cells : ribosomes yes
Present in animal cells : peptidoglycan yes
Present in animal cells : plasma membrane yes
Present in plant cells: cell wall yes
Present in plant cells: central vacuole yes
Present in plant cells: chlorplasts yes
Present in plant cells: cytoplasm yes
Present in plant cells: DNA yes
Present in plant cells: nucleus yes
Present in plant cells: nucleoid no
Present in plant cells: mitochondria yes
Present in plant cells: plasmid no
Present in plant cells: plasmodesmata yes
Present in plant cells: ribosomes yes
Present in plant cells: peptidoglycan yes
Present in plant cells: plasma membrane yes
How are cyanobacteria different from other prokaryotes They are larger and perform photosynthesis
Define hypertonic : Solute concentration is higher than that inside the cell
Define hypotonic: Solute concentration is lower than that of solutes inside the cell
Define isotonic: Solute concentration is the same
Define osmosis net movement of water molecules from a high concentration to low concentration across a membrane
The magnification of an ocular is usually 10x
Objective lens : 4x,10x,40x,60x,100x. What are the total magnifications? 40x,100x,400x,600x,1000x
What is the relationship between magnification and field of view? The greater the magnification, the smaller the field of view. This is because higher magnifications show only tin portion of the specimen at a higher magnification
Which objective provides the largest field of view? a.high b.100x. c.4x d. depends on the size of the stage 4x
What test dye determines whether a fat is present in a mixture of substances containing water Sudan IV
What does a positive Sudan IV test look like? Red layer on top/ red orange
What does a negative Sudan IV test look like ? clear
Exactly what part of the protein molecule is identified by a biuret test? the peptide bond
What is the function of the central vacuole in plants? To store nutrients, water, salts, and other things not currently being used by the cell
Name two plastids and their function Chloroplasts: Contain chlorophyll / green pigment and help carry out photosynthesis Chromoplasts: Contain red/orange pigments Leucoplasts: clear and store lipids and other clear substances
What are amyloplasts A certain type of leucoplast that store starch
What is the function of the revolving nosepiece/turret on a compound microscope to change the objective lens
In the lab on large biological molecules, water was one of the solutions used in the biochemical tests that we did. What was the purpose of the water? To serve as a neutral substance
endocytosis entering cell
exocytosis leaving cell
Describe how [H+] relates both to the acidity and alkalinity of solutions The more H+ ions, the more acidic a solution i
If a benedicts test results in an orange color what type of molecule is present reducing sugar/ carbohydrate
If a lugol's test results in a black result what type of molecule is present carbohydrate/starch
If a Sudan IV test results in a red layer on top, what type of molecule is present? lipid
If a biuret test results in a a purple color what molecule is present Protein /peptide bonds are present
You are working on an experiment in lab and you need to have a solution with an exact pH of 5.3. You have two possible methods for determining pH: pH paper or a pH meter, Which method would you use to determine and adjust pH and why? A pH meter because it gives a more accurate result
What is cyclosis cytoplasmic streaming // orderly movement of chloroplasts in cytoplasm
Why do slugs die when salted a higher solute concentration on the outside of the slug creates a concentration gradient where water moves out of the slug rapidly, causing the slug's cells to rapidly dehydrate
Why is biuret reagent and not ninhydrin used to determine whether protein is present in the solution? The biuret test tests for peptide bonds (proteins) ninhydrin tests for free amino acids
Janus Green visualize mitochondria
You are working in a lab and you need to examine the shape of the mouthparts of an insect that is 1 inch. in length. Which type of microscope would you use? Dissecting scope
Which reagent visualizes mitochondria? Janus green
One molecules reach a dynmic equilibrium on either side of a membrane they stop moving. true or false false
What will happen if you place a plant cell in a beaker containing a hypertonic 30% NaCl solution? plasmolysis
Plasmolysis shrink and shrivel
cytolysis swell and burst
List the scientific method Ask a question, form a hypothesis, experiment, collect data, conclusion, repeat revise
What is the difference between resolving power and resolution? Resolution is the ability to distinguish 2 points as separate and the resolving power is the power it is magnified at
What is the difference between cytoplasm and cytosol Cytoplasm is contained by the plasma membrane and contains the insides of a cell, however cytosol is part of the cytoplasm that doesn't have an any organelles
Biology study of life
Iris diaphram of microscope adjusts amount of light striking object
nosepiece/turret contains/rotates objective lenses
parfocal in focus of one lens
resolving power reveals detail
stereoscopic microscope view large specimens
solution homogeneous mixture of two solutions
solvent liquid that dissolves the solute
solute substance that dissolves
voltmeter measures voltage difference between electrodes in an electrical circuit
sensing electrode measures change in hydrogen concentration when acids or bases are added to a solution
reference electrode what the sensing electrode is compared against
combination electrode reference and sensing electrodes are housed within the same glass tube
4 organic macromolecules lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates
What is used as a negative control when performing substance presence tests water
Benedict's test tests for reducing sugars
What must you do in a benedicts test? Heat the solution
After heating the solution in a benedicts test, what is a positive result positive = orange/rusty color
Lugol's iodine tests for starch
what color does lugol's iodine change a solution if starch is present? blue/black
Lipids are hydrophobic or hydrophillic hydrophobic
fats include triglycerides, steroids, and phospholipids
are saturated fats solid or liquid at room temp? solid
Nonpolar Sudan IV will appear as a separate red layer and will not be present in polar portions
Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds
What two tests can be used for proteins ? ninhydrin test and biuret test
Ninhydrin tests for free amino acids
biuret tests for peptide bonds
What amino acid doesn't react with ninhydrin? proline
failure to react with ninhydrin indicates there are no free amino acids
Biuret tests test for presence of protein and peptide bonds, therefore this test is qualitative, testing for presence ; cannot measure how much protein is present
When free amino acids react in a ninhydrin test, the solution changes to purple color
What color is indicative of a protein in a biuret test? purple
spectrophotometer projects light through a solution and measures the amount of light transmitted through and amount of light absorbed by a solution
Prokaryotic cells lack a nucelus and membrane enclosed organelles
Prokaryotic cells are part of Domains Arachaea and Bacteria
all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are bound by a __________ ________________ plasma membrane
cytoplasm is made up of cytosol and organelles
cytosol is liquid part of cell consisting of water and dissolved proteins
ribosomes are found in all cells
ribosomes are resposnible for protein synthesis
Plasmids function protect bacteria in adverse environments by introducing antibiotic resistance or metabolized new nutrients
peptidoglycan found only in bacteria; long polymers of sugar intersecting polypeptide chains of the cell wall
gram positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycan
gram negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan
plasmodesmata cytoplasmic strands transferring materials from one plant cell to another
middle lamella thin sticky membrane that cements cell walls together (adjacent to eachother)
protoplast is the living part of plant cell made up of nucleus and cytoplasm
anthocyanins mineral salts, sugars, and plant pigments nonliving in cytosol
nucleus control center
central vacuole absorbs water and storage substances like anthocyanins
Most visible organelles are plastids, a variety of vesicles
chlorplasts store green pigment chlorphyll
chromoplasts store orange/red pigments called carotenoids
leucoplasts store lipids and other clear substances
amyloplasts type of leucoplast that stores starch
cyclosis or cytoplasmic streaming movement of chlorplasts in the cytoplasm
________________ is commondly used to view plasmodesmata because of their thick cell walls persimmon
nucleolus produce small and large subunits of ribosomes
mitochondria cellular respiration
Animals have 4 types of tissues: epithelial , connective, muscle, and nervous
Methylene blue stains nucleus blue
Red blood cells erythrocytes : lack a nucleus; carry oxygen
white blood cells leukocytes
lymphocytes control cell mediated immunity
true or false platelets are not cells true they are small sacs in blood that store clotting factors
three types of muscle cells skeletal, cardiac, smooth
skeletal muscles are long fibers with striations multinucleated
cardiac muscles are branched cells 1-2 nuclei
smooth muscle is spindle shaped 1 nucleus
neurons numerous extensions called dendrites recieve incoming nervous impulses from the body axon : propogates impulses away
neuroglia don't conduct nerve impulses; maintain motor neurons
cyanobacteria are special bacteria because they have a large size and conduct photosynthesis
Created by: tiffanyritch