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Cell Biology

What do ALL cells have in common? Cytoplasm and cell membrane
What are some exceptions to cell theory? There are three main examples: 1) Skeletal muscle ): larger [300mm] cells with hundreds of nuclei 2) Giant algae ): 100 mm BT ONE cell! 3) Aseptate Fungi ): consist of hyphae; "long" cell with cytoplasm and many nuclei
What should you remember when asked to DRAW on exams? 1) Ruler 2) Sharp/straight lines
What should you remember when asked to LABEL on exams? Use lines drawn with rules instead of arrows
What are the universal FUNCTIONS OF LIFE in all cells? Nutrition Excretion Reproduction Metabolism Growth Homeostasis Response
Why does a cell need excretion? To get rid of waste products from metabolism e.g. CO2 (hums)
How does cells get nutrition and why? By e.g. ingestion/production because of energy for metabolism
How do cells reproduce? asexual or sexual with mitosis and/or miosis
What is metabolism? normal cell function + catabolism/anabolism
What is essentially growth in cells? Become larger due to nutrition
What is response in cells, examples? Response in cells are to stimuli. E.g. change direction when hit a solid object or move towards light
What is homeostasis? Keeping internal conditions within limits, e.g. with waste products and
What problems do cells face regarding surface area to volume ratio? if the SURFACE AREA is too BIG, then the rate of production/use is too low if the VOLUME is too BIG, then the rate of substance in and out become limited and may overheat
What are two advantages of being multicellular? 1) Avoid too large cells i.e. volume & surface area 2) Divide the work by differentiation; organelles conduct specific tasks instead of 1 cell
What are emergent properties in cells? All the cellular components work together in symbiosis = 'the whole is greater than the sum of its parts'
What is differentiation in cells? During a cell's development, it uses only the genes in its genome relevant to carry out its intended purpose. E.g. genes for making haemoglobin only used in red blood cells.
What are stem cells? Special cells that 1) Divide rapidly 2) Can differentiate into many purposes
What happens when stem cells commit themselves to a pathway? It can no longer differentiate, and is thus not a stem cell anymore.
Where do we find and not find stem cells? Find in: 1) Embryo 2) Most adult tissues Not in: 1) Brain 2) Heart 3) Kidney
What is the advantage of stem cells in adult tissues? Repair and formation of the tissue is extremely fast
Why do embryos initally consist of nearly (?) only stem cells? Because the cells in the embryo will differentiate into different tissues/cells in a human body
What can stem cells be used for in science? Replace damaged tissue in therapeucy e.g. nerves, brain, heart.
Created by: Henrik
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