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IGHS Winkels

Biology Chapter 7

Cells basic units of life
Cell theory a fundamental concept of biology
Nucleus a large membrane-enclosed structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
Eukaryotes cells that contain nuclei
Prokaryotes cells that do not contain nuclei
Organelles "little organs"
Cytoplasm the portion of the cell outside the nucleus
Nuclear envelope two membranes that surround the nucleus
Chromatin granular material you can see in the nucleus
Chromosomes threadlike structures that contain the genetic information that is passed fron one generation of cells to the next
Nucleolus where the assembly of ribosomes begins
Ribosomes small particles of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic reticulum Eukaryotic cells contain an internal membrane sysem
Golgi apparatus proteins produced in the rough ER move into this organelle
Lysosomes digest, or break down, lipids, carbohydrates,, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
Vacuoles saclike structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Mitochondria organelles that convert the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
Chloroplasts organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
Cytoskeleton a network of protein filaments that help the cell to maintain its shape. It is also involved in movement.
Centrioles located near the nucleus and helps to organize cell division/only found in animal cells
Cell membrane a thin flexible barrier that surrounds all cells/regulates what enters and leaves the cell and also provides protection and support
Cell wall a strong supporting layer around the membrane of a cell
lipid bilayer double-layered sheet of lipids that gives cell membranes a flexible structure that forms a strong barrier between the cell and its surroundings
Concentration the mass of solute in a given volume of solution, or mass/volume
Diffusion particles move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
Equilibrium when the concentration of the solute is the same throughout a system
Osmosis the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic "same strength"
Hypertonic "above strength"
Hypotonic "below strength"
Facilitated diffusion cell membrane protein that helps the diffusion of glucose
Active transport energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
Endocytosis process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings, or pockets, of the cell membrane
Phagocytosis extensions of cytoplasm surround a particle and package it within a food vacuole
Pinocytosis process by which a cell takes in liquid from the surrounding environment
Exocytosis the membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses with the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell
Cell specialization cells throughout an organism can develop in different ways to perform different task.
Tissue is a group of similar cells that perform a particular function
Organ many groups of tissues working together
Organ system a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
Created by: Winkels