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Anatomy Ch 10

Endochrine System

TermDefinition
Alpha cells the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that secrete the hormone glucogen
Beta cells the cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that secrete the hormone insulin
catecholamines epinphrine and norepinephrine, the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla
corpus luteum the temporary endochrine gland formed from an ovarian follicle that has released an ovum;secretes progesterone and testrogen
gluconeogenesis the conversion of glucose to glycogen to be stored as potential energy
glycogenolysis the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production
hypercalcemia a high blood calcium level
hyperglycemia a high blood glucose level
hypocalcemia a low blood calcium level
hypoglycemia a low blood glucose level
hypophysis the pituitary gland
Islets of Langerhans the endochrine portions of the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon
prostaglandins locally-acting hormone-like substances produced by virtually all cells from the phospholipids of their cell membranes
renin-angiotensin mechanism a series of chemical reactions initiated by a decrease in blood pressure that stimulates the kidneys to secrete the enzyme renin
sympathomimetic having the same effects as sympathetic impulses
target organ the organ (or tissue) in which a hormone exerts its specific effects
acromegaly hypersecretion of growth hormone in an adult, resulting in excessive growth of the bones in the face, hands and feet
Addison's disease hyposecretion of the hormones of the adrenal cortex, characterized by low blood pressure, dehydration, muscle weakness and mental lethargy
cretinism hyposecretion of thyroxine in an infant
Cushing's syndrome hypersecretion of the glucocoritcoids of the adrenal cortex, characterized by fragility of skin, poor wound healing, truncal fat deposition, and thin extremities
Diabetes mellitus hyposecretion of insulin by the pancreas or the inability of insulin to exert its effects
goiter an enlargement of the thyroid gland, due to a lack of dietary iodine
Graves' disease hypersecretion of thyroxine, believed to be an autoimmune disease, symptoms reflect elevated metabolic rate
ketoacidosis a metabolic acidosis that results from the accumulation of ketones in the blood when fats and proteins are used for energy production
myxedema hyposecretion of thyroxine in an adult; decreased metabolic rate results in mental and physical lethargy
pituitary dwarfism an endochrine gland located below the hypothalamus, consisting of anterior and posterior lobes.
giantism excessive growth of the body or its parts; may be the result of hypersecretion of growth hormone in childhood
Created by: Beina