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DNA Review

DNA, Protein Synthesis, & DNA Technology - most important terms

TermDefinition
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material
nucleotide monomer of DNA or RNA; consists of a nitrogen base, a sugar, and a phosphate group
DNA replication production of an identical copy of the DNA before a cell divides
protein synthesis production of proteins by transcription and translation
transcription happens in the nucleus; an mRNA copy is made from part of DNA called a gene
translation happens at the ribosomes; tRNA carrying the correct amino acid matches with the codon on the mRNA strand; amino acids bond in a chain
mutation a change in the sequence of nucleotides in DNA
gel electrophoresis method of separating fragments of DNA by size, using an electric current
DNA fingerprinting using gel electrophoresis to make patterns of DNA bands
transgenic organism a genetically engineered organism with DNA from another species
gene therapy inserting the correct gene into patients with genetic disorders
Created by: jdriscoll