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Unit 2 Vocab Test

Anatomy and Physiology: Unit 2

TermDefinition
Cells smallest units of life
Cell Membrane the outer protective covering of the cell
Centrosome the centriole containing region of clear cytoplasm adjacent to the cell nucleus
Chomatin a complex of a nucleic acid with basic proteins in eukaryotic cells that is usually dispersed in the interphase nucleus and condensed into chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis
Cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus
Cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm of a plant or animal cell into two
Endoplasmic reticulum network of interconnected structures that function especially in the transport of materials within the cell
Genes the structures that carry inherited characteristics
Genome a total set of chromosomes with the genes they contain, consisting of strings of DNA Nucleotides
Golgi Apparatus a cytoplasmic organelle that consists of a stack of smooth membranous saccules and associated vesicles and that is active in the modification and transport of proteins
Glycolysis the breakdown of glucose inside the cell
Lysosomes a saclike cellular organelle that contains various digestive enzymes
Meiosis form of cellular reproduction specific to sex cells in all sexually reproducing single celled and multicelled eukaryotes
mitochrondria found outside the nucleus, responsible for producing energy for the cell through the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
Mitosis form of cellular reproduction that occurs in the nucleus of a dividing cell resulting in the formation of two new nuclei each having the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus
nucleolus located inside the nucleus, responsible for the production of ribosomes
nucleus a mass located in the cytoplasm of a cell, separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane, considered the control center
organ a differentiated structure consisting of cells and tissues performing some specific function in an organism
organelles a specialized cellular part that is analogous to an organ
pinocytic vesicles pocketlike folds located in the cell membrane allowing the entrance and storage of large molecules such as proteins and fats
tissues an aggregate of cells usually of a particular kind together with their intercellular substance that form one of the structural materials of a plant of an animal that that in animals include connective tissue, epithelium, nerve tissue and muscle tissue
protoplasm the basic substance of all life; this substance forms the cell
stem cells an unspecialized cell that gives rise to differentiated cells
system a group of body organs or structures that together perform one or more vital functions
vacuoles pouchlike storage structures located throughout the cytoplasm
hypertrophy cells enlarge caused by an increase of proteins in the cell membrane and cell structures, not an increase in the cell's fluid
hyperplasia the number of cells increase; there is an increased rate of cell division
dysplasia the size, shape or organization of mature cells becomes abnormal
neoplasia the formation of tumors, either cancerous or noncancerous
cell cycle the series of events involving the growth, replication and division of an eukaryotic cell
Created by: dddube