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organisms, detail of senses

first two steps of sensory perception? Reception & Transduction
What is reception? activation of sensory receptors by stimuli
What is transduction? The conversion of a stimulus into an electrical signal
What is perception? an individuals mapping of a sensation
Perception in detail is mapping of _______ ______ into the _______ _______ sensory input, cerebral cortex
Olfactory stimuli does not travel through what? Thalamus
3 layers of skin Epidermis, dermis,hypodermis
5 sensory receptors Mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, proprioreceptors, pain receptors, chemoreceptors
What does a mechanoreceptor detect? Changes in mechanical pressure or distortion
What does a thermoreceptor detect? Changes in temperature
What does a proprioreceptor detect? Sense of movement in space
What does a pain receptor detect? Potentially damaging stimuli. Noiception
What does a chemoreceptor detect? chemical stimuli
What are free nerve endings? encapsulated dendrite of sensory neuron
Most common nerve endings in skin? free nerve endings
What are free never endings sensitive to ? pain , hot, cold, touch
3 classes of mechanoreceptors tactile, proprioreceptors, barorecptors
5 somasensations merkels disk, meissners corpuscles, Krause end bulbs, pacinian corpuscles, ruffini endings
What is merkels disk? respond to light touch (lips, fingertips, typing)
What is Meissners corpuscles? in the fingertips allow for fine touch discrimination
What is Krause end bulbs? detect cold
What is pacinian corpuscles? respond to touch and high-frequency vibration
What are ruffini endings? detect stretch, deformation, warmth, grip
gustation? taste
olfacation? smell
most interconnected senses? smell & taste
5 tastes that have their own receptors? umami, sweet, bitter, salty, sour
Olfactory receptors (dendrite of specialized neuron) respond to ________. specific odorants (odor molecules)
Pheromones are sensed by the _______ ________. vomeronasal organ (VNO)
What are pheromones? Chemical released by animals that affect behavior or physiology of animals of the same species
What is a taste bud? A taste bud is a cluster of sensory receptors within tongue bumps (papillae).
How often are taste buds replaced? Replaced every 10-14 days.
Filiform papillae. Are they tactile? What do they do? How many taste cells? tactile. Moves food in your mouth. No taste cells
Fungiform papillae. How many taste buds? What do they do ? contain 1-8 taste buds and detect temperature
Foliate. How many taste buds? Where are they found? 1300 across region . Back of tongue.
What contains bulk of taste buds? Foliate
circumvallate papillae. How many taste buds? Up to 100
Pores in the _______________allow tastants (food molecules) to reach the sensory receptors. From there, it the signal travels to the ______. tongue epidermis. Medulla
audition? hearing
Sound waves are _______ _________ ________. mechanical pressure waves
wavelength corresponds to ______ (____) pitch (hertz)
amplitude (decibels) corresponds to ______. volume
What is ultrasound? How many hertz? any frequency above what humans can hear (20k hertz)
Sound reception begins at the ______ _______ Tympanic membrane
Outer ear consists of what 3 parts? Pinna- “ear” Ear canal Tympanum-ear drum
Middle ear consists of ? 3 bones named together? Actual names of individual bones? Three small bones called ossicles Malleus- hammer Incus- anvil Stapes- stirrup
pathway of vibration? ear drum, malleus, incus, stapes, inner ear
What 4 parts make up the inner ear? Round window, Labyrinth, Cochlea, Basilar membrane- runs the length of the cochlea and analyzes wavelengths
What is the round window? thin diaphragm between inner and middle ear
What is the labyrinth? bony hollow structure. Most interior part of the ear
What is the cochlea? Cochlea- “snail shell” which conducts mechanical sound waves into electrical signal
What is the Basilar membrane? runs the length of the cochlea and analyzes wavelengths
In the ear, what do soundwaves travel through? Cochlea
Organ of Corti- composed of hair cells which are the primary ______ _______. auditory receptors
Hair cells are anchored in _____ _____. basilar membrane
The ear also processes what 3 things? positional information about gravity, angular acceleration and deceleration
What is vision? ability to detect light patterns from the outside environment and interpret them into images.
Light is ________ ______ of _____. electromagnetic waves of energy
What do longer wavelengths mean? lower frequency
What is the retina? layer of photoreceptive and supporting cells on the inner surface of the back of the eye
Is the cornea transparent? What does it help focus on? Where is it located? transparent layer over the front of the eye that helps focus light waves
Is the lens transparent or no? What does it help focus on? Where is it located? transparent, helps focus light waves on the retina, behind cornea
What does the iris for to the eye? Where is it located? What does it regulate? give it color, the front of the eye that regulates the amount of light entering the eye (pupil)
Where are rods located? What type of light do they respond to ? What type of vision do they give? Color? rods are on outer edges of retina. Respond to low light (peripheral and night vision) and report shades of gray
Where are cones located? What type of color do they respond to? What type of vision do they give? Cones found near center of retina. Respond to high intensity and respond with color (day vision)
Where is the fovea located? What type of vision does it give? region in the back of eye with high density of cones. Responsible for acute vision
How many cones are there that respond to different wave lengths? What do they make possible? 3 lengths of cones make color vision possible.
What are the 3 types of cones? small, medium, large. have some overlap.
Photoreceptors in the retina fire at a ____ ______ ______ and strong stimuli can create an afterimage. low constant rate.
What is tonic activity? in a neuron, slight continuous activity while at rest
Created by: 129bella
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