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# Clicker Q's Exam 3

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Feral cats are found wherever there are (or were) humans, suitable prey (or human garbage), shelter from the elements, and no prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures. The above statement is a description of the ____ of feral cats. | Realized niche. |

The dispersion pattern for humans is best described as....? | It depends on the scale of analysis. |

Starlings in PA today are what? | Cosmopolitan |

Suppose 100 individuals were captured and marked on day 1. On day 30, 100 individuals were again captured; only 5 had marks on them. How big is the entire population? | Use M/N=R/C equation. Answer: 2000 |

Holm oak bird populations would experience an annual decline of 13% if they were not supported by dispersal of offspring from downy oak forests. In this system the ___ forest is a population source and the ___ forest is a population sink. | Downy oak.....Holm oak. |

If all rodent populations increased, but the field mouse population increased disproportionately, ..... | ...there are now more field mice than you would expect, compared to other rodents. |

Ln (e^x) = ? | x |

The graph of y=bx^t is a straight line when.... | x = 1 |

The graph of y=bx^t curves upwards when ... | x < 1 |

rN (1-N/K) = ? | rN [(K-N)/K)] |

If the total rate of increase for a population of size N is (dN/dt), then the per capita rate of increase is ....? | (dN/dt)/N |

Recent data indicate that there were about 21K cases of Ebola in Sierra Leone and Liberia at the end of September (2015). The doubling time was about 3 weeks. How long would it take before a million people were infected? | Just over 4 months. |

The most important difference between the exponential growth model (EGM) and the geometric growth model (GGM) is that? | One models continuous growth and the other models pulsed growth. |

When modeling the spread of a disease, which model makes more sense? | The exponential growth model |

When modeling the expansion of a species that reproduces each spring, which model makes more sense? | The geometric growth model. |

To determine whether a population's growth rate is stable, one can....? | Examine an age structure graph and calculate the intrinsic rate of increase. |

Which equation would be most appropriate for calculation population growth of white-tailed deer? | DeltaN = N0(lambda^t-1) |

A population is growing the fastest at which point? | The part in the middle that is almost vertical. |

Why are some populations inherently cyclical? | There is a delay between the time of breeding and the birth of offspring. |

How can energy reserves make a population experience delayed density dependence? | They enable the population to survive above carrying capacity. |

When small populations fluctuate due to stochastic factors, the population is at risk of becoming...? | Extinct. |

If you were trying to save an endangered species that lived in a metapopulation, how might you try to increase the proportion of occupied patches? | Decrease patch isolation. |

If the mean of a population fluctuates....? | The number of individuals changes over time. |

A feral cat is...? | A domestic cat that has reverted to wild. |

If an organism sequesters toxins from its diet, it....? | Saves toxic chemicals in its diet to use for defense. |

Herbivores and predators both.... | Limit the size of prey populations, often co-evolve with their prey, may be generalists or specialists, and sometimes kill they prey. |

Populations of consumers and consumed populations fluctuate in regular cycles due to ....? | Lags between reproductive behavior and birth, lags in the response times for predator movements, and linked cycles of predators and prey. |

An inducible defense is an example of...? | Phenotypic plasticity. |

A predator is most likely to approach its prey from....? | Downwind. |

Arachnids include...? | Spiders. |

In the Lotka-Volterra model, cNP indicates...? | The likelihood of a predation event. |

When a predator is initially slow to take advantage of a new prey resource, it is called....? | Type III functional response. |

Inducible defenses are the evolutionary response to ...? | The cost of defense. |

What is the difference between a parasite and a pathogen? | Parasites do not kill their hosts but pathogens generally do. |

World-wide, which disease causes the highest mortality rate? | Diarrheal illnesses. |

Why do so many pathogens cause diarrhea? | Because it is an easy way for a pathogen to get to a new host. |

Behavior can influence.... | Rate of infection, rate of recovery, and ease of transmission. |

Natural selection has favored....? | Parasites that can improve rates of transmission, hosts that can resist infection, parasites that can alter host behavior to their advantage, and hosts that have inducible defenses. |

If the observed values are very different from the expected values, the calculated chi squared statistic will be....? | Big. |

Which of the following is an example of a trade-off? | Growth vs. reproduction in dandelions, predator avoidance vs. grazing for rabbits, advertising for a mate vs. foraging for food for sage grouse, and partying (or working at a job) vs. studying for student. |

In the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interactions.... | The interactions between predators and prey can lead to cyclical abundances. |

Cyclical patterns of abundances can result from....? | Predator-prey interactions, parasite-host interactions, and density-dependence with time delays. |

In the SIR model of parasite-host infections, R0 is....? | The reproductive ratio of the infection and the ratio of new infections to recoveries. |

How does coevolution affect the relationship between hosts and parasites? | Parasites evolve to form symbiotic relationships, become less deadly over time, become more able to transmit to other species, and prevent other species from competing in the same niche. |

Which of the following would not be considered a resource? | Temperature. |

Competition can be modeled using modifications of the ...? | Logistic growth equation. |

Sage and grasses grow in similar habitats in California; however, where there is sage, there is little grass. Which of the following is a reasonable hypothesis for this? | Apparent competition: the sage shelters mice that eat grasses. |

When two species work together and will die without the other species, their relationship is called....? | Obligate. |

If two species require the same limiting resource, what would you predict about their ability to coexist? | They will be unable to coexist whether the resource is renewable or nonrenewable. |

When two species have a negative effect on each other through an enemy, it is called....? | Apparent competition. |

In the equations, alpha and beta are...? | Conversion coefficients between one species and the other. |

The best title for a graph that has four sections and they all point to a center point is....? | Conditions yielding a single equilibrium point in competitive interactions. |