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Clicker Q's Exam 3

Feral cats are found wherever there are (or were) humans, suitable prey (or human garbage), shelter from the elements, and no prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures. The above statement is a description of the ____ of feral cats. Realized niche.
The dispersion pattern for humans is best described as....? It depends on the scale of analysis.
Starlings in PA today are what? Cosmopolitan
Suppose 100 individuals were captured and marked on day 1. On day 30, 100 individuals were again captured; only 5 had marks on them. How big is the entire population? Use M/N=R/C equation. Answer: 2000
Holm oak bird populations would experience an annual decline of 13% if they were not supported by dispersal of offspring from downy oak forests. In this system the ___ forest is a population source and the ___ forest is a population sink. Downy oak.....Holm oak.
If all rodent populations increased, but the field mouse population increased disproportionately, ..... ...there are now more field mice than you would expect, compared to other rodents.
Ln (e^x) = ? x
The graph of y=bx^t is a straight line when.... x = 1
The graph of y=bx^t curves upwards when ... x < 1
rN (1-N/K) = ? rN [(K-N)/K)]
If the total rate of increase for a population of size N is (dN/dt), then the per capita rate of increase is ....? (dN/dt)/N
Recent data indicate that there were about 21K cases of Ebola in Sierra Leone and Liberia at the end of September (2015). The doubling time was about 3 weeks. How long would it take before a million people were infected? Just over 4 months.
The most important difference between the exponential growth model (EGM) and the geometric growth model (GGM) is that? One models continuous growth and the other models pulsed growth.
When modeling the spread of a disease, which model makes more sense? The exponential growth model
When modeling the expansion of a species that reproduces each spring, which model makes more sense? The geometric growth model.
To determine whether a population's growth rate is stable, one can....? Examine an age structure graph and calculate the intrinsic rate of increase.
Which equation would be most appropriate for calculation population growth of white-tailed deer? DeltaN = N0(lambda^t-1)
A population is growing the fastest at which point? The part in the middle that is almost vertical.
Why are some populations inherently cyclical? There is a delay between the time of breeding and the birth of offspring.
How can energy reserves make a population experience delayed density dependence? They enable the population to survive above carrying capacity.
When small populations fluctuate due to stochastic factors, the population is at risk of becoming...? Extinct.
If you were trying to save an endangered species that lived in a metapopulation, how might you try to increase the proportion of occupied patches? Decrease patch isolation.
If the mean of a population fluctuates....? The number of individuals changes over time.
A feral cat is...? A domestic cat that has reverted to wild.
If an organism sequesters toxins from its diet, it....? Saves toxic chemicals in its diet to use for defense.
Herbivores and predators both.... Limit the size of prey populations, often co-evolve with their prey, may be generalists or specialists, and sometimes kill they prey.
Populations of consumers and consumed populations fluctuate in regular cycles due to ....? Lags between reproductive behavior and birth, lags in the response times for predator movements, and linked cycles of predators and prey.
An inducible defense is an example of...? Phenotypic plasticity.
A predator is most likely to approach its prey from....? Downwind.
Arachnids include...? Spiders.
In the Lotka-Volterra model, cNP indicates...? The likelihood of a predation event.
When a predator is initially slow to take advantage of a new prey resource, it is called....? Type III functional response.
Inducible defenses are the evolutionary response to ...? The cost of defense.
What is the difference between a parasite and a pathogen? Parasites do not kill their hosts but pathogens generally do.
World-wide, which disease causes the highest mortality rate? Diarrheal illnesses.
Why do so many pathogens cause diarrhea? Because it is an easy way for a pathogen to get to a new host.
Behavior can influence.... Rate of infection, rate of recovery, and ease of transmission.
Natural selection has favored....? Parasites that can improve rates of transmission, hosts that can resist infection, parasites that can alter host behavior to their advantage, and hosts that have inducible defenses.
If the observed values are very different from the expected values, the calculated chi squared statistic will be....? Big.
Which of the following is an example of a trade-off? Growth vs. reproduction in dandelions, predator avoidance vs. grazing for rabbits, advertising for a mate vs. foraging for food for sage grouse, and partying (or working at a job) vs. studying for student.
In the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interactions.... The interactions between predators and prey can lead to cyclical abundances.
Cyclical patterns of abundances can result from....? Predator-prey interactions, parasite-host interactions, and density-dependence with time delays.
In the SIR model of parasite-host infections, R0 is....? The reproductive ratio of the infection and the ratio of new infections to recoveries.
How does coevolution affect the relationship between hosts and parasites? Parasites evolve to form symbiotic relationships, become less deadly over time, become more able to transmit to other species, and prevent other species from competing in the same niche.
Which of the following would not be considered a resource? Temperature.
Competition can be modeled using modifications of the ...? Logistic growth equation.
Sage and grasses grow in similar habitats in California; however, where there is sage, there is little grass. Which of the following is a reasonable hypothesis for this? Apparent competition: the sage shelters mice that eat grasses.
When two species work together and will die without the other species, their relationship is called....? Obligate.
If two species require the same limiting resource, what would you predict about their ability to coexist? They will be unable to coexist whether the resource is renewable or nonrenewable.
When two species have a negative effect on each other through an enemy, it is called....? Apparent competition.
In the equations, alpha and beta are...? Conversion coefficients between one species and the other.
The best title for a graph that has four sections and they all point to a center point is....? Conditions yielding a single equilibrium point in competitive interactions.
Created by: BriawnaW